Turmeric is obtained from the rhizome of the Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae family) plant. It is native to Southeast Asia and is grown commercially throughout the world but primarily in India. It is most often utilized as an ingredient in cooking, especially in Indian food, particularly in curries. It is also incorporated into beverages and processed foods (as a natural coloring agent, for example). Curcumin is the active ingredient in turmeric that possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which helps in pain relief. As such, it has gained much popularity in health supplements over recent years. According to Grand View Research, the curcumin market is expected to grow 16.1% annually from 2020 to 2028, reaching $191.89 million in 2028.
Turmeric contains three curcuminoids: curcumin (diferuloylmethane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcumin, or diferuloylmethane, is the main bioactive ingredient in turmeric and is responsible for its yellow pigment. It makes up around 60% to 70 percent of curcumin extracts and is also the principal curcuminoid evaluated for health-promoting effects. However, there are some risks associated with using turmeric, particularly bleeding when taken in excessive amounts. Turmeric also contains sugars, proteins, resins, and volatile oils such as turmerone, atlantone, and zingiberene, which also have pharmacological bioactivities.
What Are the Benefits of Turmeric?
Like many other spices, turmeric has a long Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine history of curing inflammatory diseases, skin disorders, injuries, digestive problems, and liver issues. Apart from giving curry its vivid yellow color, the following are the possible health-promoting qualities of turmeric and its curcuminoids based on systematic evidence by health and medicine experts.
1. Decreases Inflammation
According to a 2016 systematic review of randomized controlled trials conducted by Dr. Daily and published in the Journal of Medicine Food, 1,000 mg per day of curcumin reduced OA (osteoarthritis) pain and inflammation. It has a similar reduction of symptoms as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) like diclofenac and ibuprofen. After curcumin consumption, the metabolites of curcumin are found in significant amounts in circulation. These curcumin byproducts might be involved with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that help alleviate symptoms of metabolic diseases, including osteoarthritis.
Check the standardized amount of curcumin when looking for a supplement and select brands that contain phospholipids, antioxidants or nanoparticles for better absorption. The Arthritis Foundation recommends using 500 mg capsules twice daily of curcumin extract.
2. Improves Memory
A new study published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, led by Dr. Small and his colleagues, provides further evidence that curcumin protects the brain and improves memory. Participants took 90 mg of Theracurmin® (a bioavailable form of curcumin) twice daily and found significant memory and attention benefits. According to their study, symptom improvement was linked to a reduction in amyloid and tau accumulation in brain areas that control mood and memory.
The researchers describe Theracurmin as a curcumin derivative with enhanced endothelial permeability. According to Dr. Small and his associates, follow-up research is in the works. It will include more people with mild depression and those at risk for Alzheimer’s disease with a genetic predisposition.
3. Improves Liver Function
Turmeric may help improve liver function because of its antioxidant effects, this can be shown in a research article conducted on rats by Dr. Lee et al. and published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Turmeric extract and curcumin are potentially beneficial for treating liver disease because they may act as potential antioxidant agents by lowering the production of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase while improving glutathione content in the liver, resulting in a reduction in lipid peroxidation.
4. Fights Free Radicals
Oxidative damage caused by free radicals is one of the mechanisms behind aging and many diseases. Antioxidants are beneficial in protecting the body from free radicals. Curcumin is considered to have an essential role in defending against oxidative stress based on a review by Dr. Menon et al. and published in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Curcumin plays a vital role in preventing chronic pathological complications such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disease associated with oxidative damage and free-radical peroxidation.
5. Lowers Risk of Heart Disease
Curcumin has antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregating effects, which help decrease the risks of heart disease, the world’s leading cause of death, based on a report from the World Health Organization. Curcumin helps enhance the function of the endothelium, the lining of your blood vessels, by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress based on a study led by Dr. Santos-Parker, J., and published in the Impact Journal of Aging. Endothelial dysfunction is a significant contributor to heart disease which curcumin may combat. Curcumin’s antioxidant properties aid in reducing blood lipids, particularly cholesterol.
6. Helps Fight Depression
Several studies suggest that turmeric may be beneficial for the treatment of depression. Depression is linked to reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a shrinking hippocampus, a structure crucial for learning and memory. According to a clinical review led by Dr. Kulkarni, S. and published in the Scientific World Journal, curcumin may help raise BDNF levels by altering neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain and increasing neurotrophic factors, promoting neuronal survival even further.
Dr. Jayesh Sanmukhani et al. conducted a controlled trial of 60 people with depression and revealed that curcumin was as effective as Prozac in reducing signs of the condition. This study published on Phytotherapy Research provides the first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in patients who do not have concurrent suicidal thoughts or other psychotic disorders.
7. Helps Prevent Cancer
Curcumin may prevent cancer growth and development, according to a 2015 report published in Anticancer Research led by Dr. Natalia Vallianou. Curcumin inhibits the STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways, both involved in cancer development and progression. Furthermore, downregulation of Sp-1 and its housekeeping gene expressions may be a valuable hypothesis to avoid cancer formation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, they found, curcumin can decrease the DNA binding activity of Sp-1 in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells and suppress the Sp-1 activity in bladder cancer.
In a 2015 Cancer Prevention Research study published by Dr. Carroll et al., 4 grams of curcumin per day reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) by 40% in 44 men with colonic abnormalities that may become cancerous. ACF is considered the first identifiable neoplastic abnormality in the colon carcinogenetic model. Similarly, the development of ACFs into polyps and then cancer is determined by a series of biochemical changes and mutations that result in a small number of ACF becoming cancerous.
8. Turmeric and Hay Fever
Hay fever is an illness affecting the nose that includes various symptoms. It develops when the immune system identifies and overreacts to something in the environment that most people don’t have a problem with. The anti-inflammatory properties of turmeric can be used in the fight to clear nasal congestion and treat sinus infections. A 2016 study published in Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology by Dr. Wu et al. in patients with allergic rhinitis who took curcumin showed an improvement in nasal airflow and a positive effect on the immune response. The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin are linked to modulating IL-4, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α, while increasing IL-10 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule production.
9. Turmeric and Osteoarthritis
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Osteoarthritis, also called wear and tear arthritis, is the most common form of arthritis.” Osteoarthritis is caused by the breakdown of joint cartilage between bones in the hands, hips, and knees. Curcuminoids have been proven to be more effective at treating arthritis than NSAIDs in systematic reviews and meta-analyses of certain arthritis studies.
Dr. Belcaro, G. et al. discovered that a daily intake of 200 mg. of Meriva® (a unique curcumin combination with soy phosphatidylcholine) effectively manages and treats Osteoarthritis in a study published in Panminerva Medica, a journal on internal medicine. The study suggests that phospholipid complexation’s enhanced stability and absorption of curcumin have clinical significance.
What Are the Risks (Side Effects) of Turmeric?
The risks or side effects of turmeric are common when consumed in large amounts. In a study published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine led by Dr. Christopher Lao, 500 to 12,000 mg of curcumin was given to human subjects. The researchers observed seven adverse events among the 24 participants, including diarrhea, headache, skin rash, and yellow stool. While turmeric does provide potential health benefits, it may also create some risks worth considering.
- Gastrointestinal effects: Turmeric causes the stomach to produce more gastric acid, which can be beneficial for some but detrimental to others.
- May cause kidney stones: Turmeric is high in oxalate, a chemical that is excreted through the urine. In high doses, excess oxalate can combine with calcium and increase the risk of kidney stones based on a study by Dr. Tang, M. et al. and published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
- Thins the blood: Turmeric’s antiseptic qualities may also help with bleeding, however, using turmeric in high doses can interact with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin (Coumadin).
- Stimulating contractions: Turmeric supplements should not be taken by pregnant women because of their blood-thinning properties as this may stimulate contractions. Adding little amounts of turmeric to meals as a spice should not result in any health issues.
When considering whether turmeric is something you should try, it is critical to exercise caution to prevent its risk of side effects. Before using turmeric to cure any health issue, speak with your doctor about it.
How Does Turmeric Work Within the Human Body?
According to a review by Dr. Hewlings, J. et al. and published in the Foods journal, turmeric works within the human body by targeting numerous signaling molecules while also exhibiting cellular activity. Although curcumin appears to provide a plethora of health benefits, most of these effects are attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
As an antioxidant, curcumin improves oxidative stress parameters and elevates antioxidant enzymes in the blood, including superoxide dismutase (SOD). It removes various free radicals, such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RON). Curcumin also inhibits ROS-generating enzymes such as lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase and xanthine hydrogenase/oxidase by modulating the activity of glutathione (GSH), catalase, and SOD enzymes involved in the neutralization of free radicals.
As an anti-inflammatory, curcumin inhibits NF-kappaB activation stimulated by various inflammatory stimuli such as cytokines and reduces inflammation through several pathways. The damaging cytokines are considered at the heart of diabetes and cardiovascular disease-related problems. The transcription factor NF-κB is a crucial regulator of inflammatory immune responses and cytokine production.
Curcumin inhibits the development of some Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) components by enhancing insulin sensitivity, decreasing fat formation, and lowering blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In addition, curcuminoids alter the expression of genes and enzymes in lipoprotein metabolism that lead to a decrease in plasma triglycerides and cholesterol while increasing HDL-C levels.
How To Determine Turmeric Dosage?
When taken as a supplement, it is best to follow the instruction label or consult a doctor to determine the proper dosage for turmeric, especially for those using other medications. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists turmeric as “generally regarded as safe” (GRAS). Curcumin intake of 1.4 mg per kilogram (0–3 mg/kg) of body weight is recommended by the World Health Organization. Below you will find dosage recommendations and their respective usage purposes based on the Internet Drug Index resource.
- For high cholesterol: 1.4 grams of turmeric extract in two divided doses daily for three months.
- For itching (pruritus): 1500 mg of turmeric in three divided doses daily for eight weeks.
- For osteoarthritis: 500 mg of a non-commercial turmeric product four times daily for 4-6 weeks.
- For high cholesterol: 1.4 grams of turmeric extract in two divided doses daily for three months in children at least 15 years old.
What Are the Supplement Forms of Turmeric?
Turmeric is the primary component of curry powder, producing its vivid orange color. Some individuals supplement their diet with turmeric to reap the associated health advantages. Piperine, a component in black pepper that helps boost the rate at which the body absorbs turmeric, has been shown in a study by Dr. Hewlings, J. et al. and published in the Foods journal. Because of this, turmeric supplements frequently include piperine to enhance absorption rates. Below are the supplement forms of turmeric which are commercially available.
- Tablets: A combination of turmeric’s active components and excipients combined into a solid form. Tablets are most frequently coated to make ingestion and absorption easier. They come in a variety of shapes, colors, and surface textures.
- Capsules: A capsule is a soft-shelled pill containing a powdered version of turmeric encased in gelatin, cellulose, or similar material shells. It is worth noting that capsules can be devoid of excipients and are typically purer than other turmeric supplements.
- Ground/Powders: Turmeric powder has a bright yellow/orange color with a mildly aromatic flavor. It is extracted from the root of a turmeric plant that has been cured and dried. Turmeric powders are commonly consumed in food preparations and for making teas.
- Liquid extracts: The most common liquid extracts from the turmeric rhizome are turmeric shots and essential oils. Turmeric shots are popular tiny drinks, about 3-4 ounces in volume, for delivering a liquid dose of health-promoting compounds. Turmeric essential oil has a warm, woody smell. It is diluted with carrier oils like coconut oil and jojoba for topical and haircare applications.
What Are the Facts About Turmeric?
The facts about turmeric are based on real-world knowledge and observations about this spice. Here are some interesting facts about turmeric:
- Turmeric is known as the golden spice of India because of its bright yellow color and is widely used as a dye.
- Turmeric is used in the Asian healing practice known as Ayurveda, to cure stomach, liver, dental and diabetic problems. It is also used to treat arthritis and diabetes.
- Turmeric was known in the Middle Ages as “Indian saffron” owing to its popularity as a less expensive alternative to saffron.
- According to the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Agritech Portal, India is the largest producer and exporter of Turmeric in the world.
- Erode, the city of Tamil Nadu’s Indian state is recognized as “Yellow City” or “Turmeric City”, being the world’s largest producer of turmeric.
- Turmeric’s curcumin is unstable and has poor bioavailability when consumed orally.
- Dr. Eric Lattman et al. of Aston University discovered that turmeric is an antivenom for bites from a King Cobra.
- You can sprinkle turmeric powder on a cut or burn to promote healing faster.
- A spoonful of turmeric powder added to water-cooled radiators will prevent leaks.
- Turmeric paste is a popular home remedy for sunburn, and it is also used in many commercial sunscreens.
- It is thought that turmeric had a long association with Hawaii, and ancient Hawaiians utilized the root for medicinal purposes, including infections and ulcers.
What is the Nutritional Profile of Turmeric?
Turmeric’s nutritional profile outlines the various vitamins and minerals that it contains. Turmeric contains more than 300 natural components and the chemical that is most highly praised for its health benefits is curcumin. The following is the nutritional profile for a 1 tsp (3 g) serving of turmeric according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database.
Calorie: 9.36 Kilocalories
- Vitamins C 0.021 mg
- Thiamin 0.002 mg
- Riboflavin 0.004 mg
- Niacin 0.041 mg
- Pantothenic acid 0.016 mg
- Vitamin B-6 0.003 mg
- Folate 0.6 µg
- Choline 1.48 mg
- Betaine 0.291 mg
- Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 0.133 mg
- Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 0.402 ug
- Calcium, Ca 5.04 mg
- Iron, Fe 1.65 mg
- Magnesium, Mg 6.24 mg
- Phosphorus, P 8.97 mg
- Potassium, K 62.4 mg
- Sodium, Na 0.81 mg
- Zinc 0.135 mg
- Copper, Cu 0.039 mg
- Manganese, Mn 0.594 mg
- Selenium, Se 0.186 µg
- Water 0.384 g
- Protein 0.29 g
- Total lipid (fat) 0.098 g
- Ash 0.212 g
- Carbohydrate 2.01 g
- Fiber 0.681 g
- Sugars 0.096 g
- Sucrose 0.071 g
- Glucose 0.011 g
- Fructose 0.013 g
How Is Turmeric Processed?
Raw turmeric is processed for consumption, cooking, and storing. Before the turmeric powder reaches consumers, it goes through long processing stages: washing, cooking/blanching, drying, polishing, coloring, grading, and storing. Various extraction methods, conditions, and solvents are used to extract curcuminoids from powdered rhizomes. These include ultrasonication, reflux, pressurized liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction. Modern science has validated many of turmeric’s medical uses, and today, numerous healthcare practitioners consider it a household therapy. As a result, turmeric plays an essential part in herbalism, dietary supplements, and pharmaceutical research. Turmeric is a valuable spice in culinary, cosmetics and beauty products.
What Are the Types of Turmeric?
The types of turmeric are based on their uses and benefits. Cultivated turmeric is popularly used in food and is adapted to growing in areas of seasonal drought in monsoonal forests. On the other hand, wild turmeric is used in cosmetic preparations and is found in warm forest areas in the eastern Himalayas. Below are the types of turmeric that belong to the family Zingiberaceae according to the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, India.
- Manjal: Manjal (Curcuma longa) is the type of turmeric popularly used for culinary purposes and is called curry manjal in India. The rhizomes are dried and ground into a yellow powder used to make curry powders. The young shoots and rhizome tips can be eaten raw or cooked, or finely chopped and added to meals for a mild, spicy taste.
- Kasturi manjal: Wild turmeric, or as it is called scientifically, Kasturi manjal (Curcuma aromatica), is widely used for cosmetic and other beauty products because it is mild on the skin. Since the Kasturi manjal variety isn’t staining, it is believed to be the best turmeric for external applications. Indigenous medicines use it in snake poison and externally to treat skin diseases, bruises, sprains, and bruising and enhance the skin complexion.
- Kuda manjal: Kuda Manjal has a long shape like a tiny form of an umbrella (the name Kuda signifies an umbrella). It is utilized in ceremonies and rituals and is considered very sacred. Some recognize this as a divine image and keep it in their home for either worship or to absorb its divine energy.
- Kaari manjal: Kari Manjal is known as black turmeric, a rare herb from the rhizome of the Curcuma caesia plant. Of all the Curcuma species, this darker cultivar is known for its heavy concentration of curcumin. It has been used medicinally for centuries to treat arthritis, asthma, and epilepsy. The crushed roots of black turmeric root can be applied to bruises and sprains to reduce discomfort or applied to the forehead to help reduce migraine symptoms. The Indian Agricultural Department has classified Black turmeric as an endangered species, as of 2016.
- Mara manjal: Mara Manjal or tree turmeric (Coscinium fenestratum) is a valuable ingredient in several traditional medical systems of India, Cambodia and Vietnam. Berberine, a chemical extracted from the plant, is used in the modern medicine and dye industry. Its wood with broad-spectrum antiseptic properties treats liver ailments, ulcers, and wounds.
What Is Cultivated Turmeric?
Cultivated turmeric or Indian saffron, is grown for its warm, bitter flavor and as a coloring agent in culinary preparations. Currently, turmeric is widely cultivated in tropical areas and is known by various names depending on the country and culture. The rhizome can be fresh, dried or ground into a powder-like form in cooking, cosmetics and medicine. The beneficial effects of turmeric are traditionally achieved through dietary consumption to prevent and treat illnesses. According to Grand View Research, the largest regional market for turmeric in 2019 was North America, with a value of USD 73.8 million. It is expected that the curcumin market in the Asia Pacific will grow at the second-fastest rate from 2020 to 2027. Turmeric is widely used in food products in this region, contributing to its high demand.
What Is the Etymology of Turmeric?
The term turmeric is a Sanskrit synonym for yellow color and has been mentioned in various Sanskrit texts dating back to the 4th and 5th centuries. It comes from the Latin word terra merita (meritorious earth), referring to its color, which is similar to that of a mineral pigment and altered from Middle English turmeryte (early 15c.) In French, it is called terre méritée, literally “worthy earth,” and in many languages, it is known as simply “yellow root.” The word Curcuma is derived from Latin.
What Is the Place of Turmeric in Society and Culture?
Turmeric has an important place in several societies and cultures in addition to its culinary and medicinal uses. Turmeric has been used as a “blood purifier” in Ayurveda medical practices in India. In powdered form, a paste or the whole rhizome, it is used by various peoples of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands to paint the body, dye cloth, or act as a protective charm of a magical nature.
Across many religions, the groom and bride are often smeared with turmeric paste before the wedding. A turmeric-dyed thread is worn around the bride’s neck to signify her marriage during the wedding. The robes of Buddhist monks are also dyed in turmeric. At the same time, Hindu invitation cards usually feature a turmeric stain when conveying good news. Oprah’s list of top 25 superfoods included turmeric 2010. Many cosmetic goods now include turmeric in toothpaste tubes, face washes, and shampoos.
In India, turmeric has long been associated with good luck and sacredness. It is a staple ingredient in many traditional dishes and an important symbol of a culture that you can find throughout society today.
What Are Some Food Recipes That Contain Turmeric?
Turmeric is used as a spice and coloring agent in many different cuisines worldwide. You can readily prepare many of these recipes at home. Because of its bitter and earthy taste, these dishes get an extra depth of flavor. Turmeric makes these dishes exciting, unique, and delicious:
- Turmeric Tea Latte (also called Golden Milk)
- Turmeric and Coconut Fish Curry
- Turmeric Smoothie
- Honey Mustard Turmeric Chicken
- Saucy Moroccan Chicken
- Malaysian Fish Curry
- Jamie Oliver’s Perfect Dosa
- Mango and Turmeric Coconut Yogurt
- Turmeric Salad Dressing
- Goat Shoulder Curry
What Are the Different Parts of Turmeric?
The parts of turmeric include the rhizomes (underground stems), leaves, and flowers. Leaf stems are long and simple, resulting in long petioles (leaf stems). Near the soil surface, the leaf stalks emerge from the branching rhizomes. The rhizomes are considered stems growing underneath the earth and contain nodes and internodes. Additionally, the root is an anchor of the plant and keeps it attached to the ground. Young rhizomes are pale yellow or orange, while older rhizomes are scaly and brown. The flowers are small and yellow-orange, bearing waxy bracts of pale green or purple.
What is Turmeric Root?
Turmeric root is a misnomer. The rhizome of the Curcuma longa plant is the part that is actually used in supplements and food as a coloring agent and flavor enhancer. The rhizome’s yellow compound is curcumin, the main portion of turmeric consumed.
Is Turmeric Root more Effective than other Parts of Turmeric?
Yes, turmeric root is more effective than the other parts of turmeric because curcumin is only acquired from its roots. The use of the word root here is actually a misnomer. The proper terminology is called rhizome, which is the part of the plant that turmeric is obtained from. Curcumin is the active component of turmeric that has an essential role in preventing and remedying different illnesses.
What Is the History of Turmeric?
Turmeric has been used as a culinary spice and had some religious significance since the Vedic culture in India, dating back nearly 4000 years. By 700 AD, it arrived in China, 800 AD in East Africa, 1200 AD in West Africa, and Jamaica in the 18th century. Marco Polo was amazed by this spice in 1280, describing it as a vegetable with very similar characteristics to saffron. According to Sanskrit medical texts and Ayurvedic and Unani systems, turmeric has been used in South Asia for a long time. Sushruta Samhita, an ancient Indian surgeon between 1000 and 800 BC, recommends an ointment containing turmeric to treat poisoned food poisoning.
What Are the Other Plants That Are Called Turmeric From Time to Time?
The genus Curcuma comprises many other economically significant species. Below are other plants that are called turmeric from time to time because they are used in similar ways.
- C. amada (mango ginger),
- C. angustifolia (wild arrowroot, narrow-leaved turmeric)
- C. aromatica (Cochin turmeric, wild turmeric)
- C. zedoaria (zedoary)
What Are the Most Common Questions for Turmeric Usage?
Here, we will explore the most common questions about turmeric usage along with their answers.
Is Turmeric Good for the Liver?
Turmeric is good for the liver, according to Dr. Lee, H. et al. as published in BMC Complement Alternative Medicine. Turmeric extract and curcumin have been found to protect rats’ livers from injury by lowering aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity and enhancing hepatic glutathione content; resulting in a decreased level of lipid peroxidase. They concluded that turmeric extract and curcumin were therapeutic antioxidants for hepatic disease in humans.
Is Turmeric Good for Acid Reflux?
Yes, turmeric is good for acid reflux. Dr. S. Kwiecien and colleagues published a study in the International Journal of Molecular Pharmaceutics in 2019, which revealed that curcumin has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties in treating digestive issues.
Is Turmeric Good for Diabetes?
Turmeric is good for diabetes, according to a 2013 review of research conducted by Dr. Zhang, D. et al. published in the Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine journal. Researchers discovered that curcumin lowers blood glucose levels and other diabetes symptoms that might aid in the prevention of diabetes.
Are Turmeric Supplements Approved by the Authorities?
Turmeric is deemed GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) by the FDA. GRAS status is established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to accept ingredients in foods and beverages. Dietary supplements are not required by federal law to be proven safe to the FDA’s satisfaction before they can be marketed. The FDA iterates that dietary food producers should guarantee their products are safe and comply with applicable laws and regulations.
Is Turmeric an Anticoagulant?
Turmeric is an anticoagulant based on a clinical report by Dr. Bosca et al. as published in the Mechanisms of Ageing and Development journal. The information has shown that ingestion of two tablets of a hydroalcoholic turmeric extract (approximately 10 mg of curcumin per tablet) throughout treatment for 15 days decreased fibrinogen levels to 240–290 mg/dl range without any side effects (nausea, diarrhea, or constipation).
A separate study by Dr. Srivastava, R. et al. published in the Thrombosis Research Journal, curcumin’s effectiveness in controlling platelet aggregation appears to be directly linked to thromboxane inhibition and an increase in prostacyclin activity.
Can You Take Turmeric at Night?
Yes, you can take turmeric at night. According to research published in the Phytomedicine journal led by Dr. Kumar, A. et al., nitric oxide modulation is responsible for the protective action of Curcumin against sleep deprivation-induced behavioral changes and oxidative damage.
Can You Take Turmeric After a Meal?
You can take turmeric after a meal or any time of the day. In addition, curcumin supplements can be consumed with a rich fat meal. The absorption of curcumin is enhanced by the consumption of a fatty meal because of its fat-soluble nature.
Can You Take Turmeric Every Day?
You can take turmeric every day if it doesn’t exceed the WHO’s recommendation of 1.4 mg per pound (0–3 mg/kg) of body weight. Be careful that large doses or continuous usage may induce stomach difficulties in some individuals and interfere with several drugs and health issues.
Can a Child Take Turmeric?
Yes, a child can take turmeric. However, no set dosage has been established for pediatric A study conducted by Dr. Suskind, D. et al. and published in the Journal Of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition found that curcumin is tolerated by pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBS). Children were given two grams twice a day as an alternative therapy to IBSusage, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center report. . It is recommended to consult with a doctor about the proper dosing for turmeric supplements in children.
Can Your Pet Consume Turmeric?
In general, a pet can consume turmeric in small quantities. You may even find it listed as an ingredient on your dog’s food label as a flavoring and a color enhancer. You can add it to their food or bake it into a treat. The website veterinarians.org recommends starting slowly and working up to the maximum dosage for your pet. In this way, you can discover any issues your pet may experience while taking turmeric.
What Are the Differences Between Turmeric and Ginger?
The differences between turmeric and ginger lie in their active constituents. Ginger has active components of gingerol, shogaol, and zerumbone, whereas turmeric contains three active major curcuminoids: curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Between these two spices, turmeric is studied to be beneficial for treating depression and several neurological diseases. In contrast, ginger is primarily used to treat nausea, menstrual cramps and gastrointestinal illnesses.
Does Turmeric Have the Same Benefit As Ginger?
Yes, turmeric has the same benefit as ginger, particularly its anti-inflammatory qualities. Both spices help treat digestive disorders and reduce inflammation in patients with osteoarthritis. According to Dr. R D Altman and published in the Arthritis and Rheumatism journal, a highly concentrated ginger extract improves symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee in a statistically substantial manner. Turmeric, on the other hand, has been found to be as effective as common anti-inflammatory medicines like diclofenac and ibuprofen as stated in a 2016 systematic review of randomized controlled trials conducted by Dr. Daily and published in the Journal of Medicine Food.
Which Tree Produces Turmeric?
Turmeric is the product of the herbaceous perennial plant Curcuma longa from the Zingiberaceae family that produces curcumin. It is obtained from a tuberous, scaly, and segmented rhizome.
What Are the Top Scientific Research Topics for Turmeric?
Turmeric has long been a popular herbal remedy for many different ailments. It is packed with health benefits, but there are still some valid questions that require further investigation to get the most from this timeless spice. Here are the top scientific research topics for turmeric:
- Gastrointestinal disorders
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Alzheimer’s disease
Is Turmeric Effective for Skin Lightening?
According to Ayurveda, one of the world’s oldest medical systems, turmeric is effective for skin lightening. It reduces dark spots and gives the skin a radiant sheen. The Hindu wedding ceremony includes applying turmeric to the bride-to-be for whitening properties. According to a study by Dr. Vaughn, A. et al., as published in Phytotherapy Research, turmeric formulations taken orally and topically may help cure skin conditions and promote overall skin health.
Do DIY Turmeric Masks Really Work?
A DIY turmeric mask may work since turmeric contains antioxidants and anti-inflammatory chemicals that may give the complexion a healthy glow. Based on a study conducted by Dr. Dania Akbik published in the journal of Life Sciences, optimizing the topical application of curcumin by changing its formulation is required to get the most of its therapeutic benefits on the skin.
Does Turmeric Stain Your Skin?
Yes, turmeric can stain the skin temporarily. A good option to help avoid this is to use the turmeric species Kasturi turmeric (Curcuma aromatica) which is intrinsically stain-free among the turmeric varieties and is meant for external use only.
How do you Remove Turmeric Stains from your Skin?
Turmeric may assist in exfoliating the skin and preventing acne, but this natural pigment can stain your skin yellow. You may remove the stain on your skin, face, or nails with everyday household products found in the kitchen.
Here is a step-by-step guide on removing turmeric stains from the skin:
1. Heat a couple of tablespoons of coconut oil until warm and massage the oil into your skin. Turmeric is more soluble in oil, making removing the stains easier.
2. Wipe your skin dry with a cloth until the oil is completely removed.
3. Wash your skin with warm soapy water, rinse and pat it dry with a towel. Repeat the steps if any stains remain on your skin.
Is Turmeric a Good Supplement to Take?
Yes, turmeric is a good supplement to take since numerous clinical research have backed-up traditional claims that it has therapeutic effects. More than 100 components were isolated in turmeric, based on a study led by Dr. Sahdeo Prasad and published in Herbal Medicine. Curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and demethoxycurcumin are the most studied components among them.
Can too Much Turmeric Make you Acidic?
Too much turmeric does not make you acidic. Rather, it increases the risk of indigestion, nausea, and diarrhea. For some people, turmeric worsens acid reflux symptoms. Still, there are no clinical findings to support their claims.
Is Turmeric Tea Good for Inflammation?
Turmeric tea is good for inflammation and reduces swelling particularly in arthritis. The anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin effectively reduced pain in patients with osteoarthritis based on a study by Dr. Henrotin, Y. et al. as published in the National Library of Medicine.
Does Turmeric Tea Have the Same Nutritional Content as Pills?
No, turmeric tea does not have the same nutritional content as pills because not all turmeric supplements are made equally. Pills are standardized and can contain a specific percentage of concentrated curcuminoids. On the other hand, turmeric teas typically contain whole turmeric powder only.
What is the Best Form of Turmeric to Take?
The ideal form of turmeric is liquid since it is simple to take, rapidly goes into the body, and activates powerful healing properties. Liquid turmeric allows greater control over how much turmeric is consumed, making it simpler to boost or lower the dose. Liquid turmeric also has the added benefit of not requiring you to swallow pills every day. A turmeric supplement with Theracurmin is also ideal because of its improved curcumin’s solubility and bioavailability in the body.
What Should I Look for When Buying Turmeric?
Look for a high concentration of curcumin with piperine as an added ingredient to help improve curcumin’s absorption in the body. A study by Dei Cas, M. et al. and published in the journal of Nutrients shows that combining curcumin with piperine, a compound seen in black pepper, can greatly raise curcumin bioavailability. In addition, examine for the trademark Theracurmin® in turmeric supplements. It’s a more bioavailable form of curcumin produced using submicron particle formation and surface-controlled technology.
What Is the Difference Between Curcuminoids and Curcumin?
Turmeric contains curcuminoids, which are a class of its active components. The polyphenolic pigments in turmeric are called curcuminoids which include curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcumin is the most abundant among them.
Is Curcumin More Beneficial Than Turmeric?
Whether curcumin or turmeric supplements are better is not officially agreed upon. While most studies use curcumin, both forms deliver beneficial health properties. Which form is best to use depends on the goals and preferences of the user.
- Sci-Hub | The Essential Medicinal Chemistry of Curcumin | 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00975. (2022). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://sci-hubtw.hkvisa.net/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00975
- Dosoky, N., & Setzer, W. (2018). Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of Curcuma Species. Nutrients, 10(9), 1196. doi: 10.3390/nu10091196
- Curcumin Market Size & Share Analysis Report, 2028. (2022). Retrieved 11 January 2022, from https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/turmeric-extract-curcumin-market
- Sci-Hub | Structures of sesquiterpenes from Curcuma longa | 10.1016/0031-9422(90)83038-3. (2022). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://sci-hubtw.hkvisa.net/10.1016/0031-9422(90)83038-3
- Daily, J., Yang, M., & Park, S. (2016). Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Journal Of Medicinal Food, 19(8), 717-729. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2016.3705
- (2022). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/treatment/complementary-therapies/supplements-and-vitamins/supplement-and-herb-guide-for-arthritis-symptoms
- Sci-Hub | Memory and Brain Amyloid and Tau Effects of a Bioavailable Form of Curcumin in Non-Demented Adults: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled 18-Month Trial | 10.1016/j.jagp.2017.10.010. (2022). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://sci-hubtw.hkvisa.net/10.1016/j.jagp.2017.10.010
- Lee, H., Kim, S., Lee, G., Choi, M., Jung, H., & Kim, Y. et al. (2016). Turmeric extract and its active compound, curcumin, protect against chronic CCl4-induced liver damage by enhancing antioxidation. BMC Complementary And Alternative Medicine, 16(1). doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1307-6
- Ng, Q., Koh, S., Chan, H., & Ho, C. (2017). Clinical Use of Curcumin in Depression: A Meta-Analysis. Journal Of The American Medical Directors Association, 18(6), 503-508. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2016.12.071
- Menon VP, Sudheer AR. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:105-25. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-46401-5_3. PMID: 17569207.
- Sci-Hub | [ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY] The Molecular Targets and Therapeutic Uses of Curcumin in Health and Disease Volume 595 || ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF CURCUMIN | 10.1007/978-0-387-46401-5_3. (2022). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://sci-hubtw.hkvisa.net/10.1007/978-0-387-46401-5_3
- Srivastava, R., Dikshit, M., Srimal, R., & Dhawan, B. (1985). Anti-thrombotic effect of curcumin. Thrombosis Research, 40(3), 413-417. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/10429144/Anti_thrombotic_effect_of_curcumin?auto=citations&from=cover_page
- The top 10 causes of death. (2020). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death
- Santos-Parker, J., Strahler, T., Bassett, C., Bispham, N., Chonchol, M., & Seals, D. (2017). Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Aging, 9(1), 187-208. doi: 10.18632/aging.101149
- Kulkarni, S., Dhir, A., & Akula, K. (2009). Potentials of Curcumin as an Antidepressant. The Scientific World JOURNAL, 9, 1233-1241. doi: 10.1100/tsw.2009.137
- VALLIANOU, N., EVANGELOPOULOS, A., SCHIZAS, N., & KAZAZIS, C. (2015). Potential Anticancer Properties and Mechanisms of Action of Curcumin. Anticancer Research, 35(2), 645-651. Retrieved from https://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/35/2/645
- Sci-Hub | Phase IIa Clinical Trial of Curcumin for the Prevention of Colorectal Neoplasia | 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0098. (2022). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://sci-hubtw.hkvisa.net/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0098
- Wu, S., & Xiao, D. (2016). Effect of curcumin on nasal symptoms and airflow in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Annals Of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 117(6), 697-702.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2016.09.427
- Osteoarthritis (OA) | Arthritis | CDC. (2022). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/osteoarthritis.htm
- G, B., MR, C., M, D., L, P., A, L., & MG, G. et al. (2010). Product-evaluation registry of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Medica, 52(2 Suppl 1). Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20657536/
- Tang, M., Larson-Meyer, D., & Liebman, M. (2008). Effect of cinnamon and turmeric on urinary oxalate excretion, plasma lipids, and plasma glucose in healthy subjects. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 87(5), 1262-1267. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/87.5.1262
- Lao, C., Ruffin, M., Normolle, D., Heath, D., Murray, S., & Bailey, J. et al. (2006). Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. BMC Complementary And Alternative Medicine, 6(1). doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-10
- Hewlings, S., & Kalman, D. (2017). Curcumin: A Review of Its Effects on Human Health. Foods, 6(10), 92. doi: 10.3390/foods6100092
- (2022). Retrieved 3 January 2022, from https://www.rxlist.com/turmeric/supplements.htm#Dosing
- (2022). Retrieved 4 January 2022, from https://agritech.tnau.ac.in/demic/pdf/2017/jan_urmeric%20english.pdf
- Lattmann, E., Sattayasai, J., Sattayasai, N., Staaf, A., Phimmasone, S., Schwalbe, C., & Chaveerach, A. (2010). In-vitro and in-vivo antivenin activity of 2-[2-(5,5,8a-trimethyl-2-methylene-decahydro-naphthalen-1-yl)-ethylidene]-succinaldehyde against Ophiophagus hannah venom. Journal Of Pharmacy And Pharmacology, 62(2), 257-262. doi: 10.1211/jpp.62.02.0014
- (2022). Retrieved 4 January 2022, from http://www.spices.res.in/sites/default/files/Extension%20Pamphlets/turmeric.pdf
- (2022). Retrieved 4 January 2022, from http://www.ijptb.com/manuscript/IJPTB0602001.pdf
- turmeric | Etymology, origin and meaning of turmeric by etymonline. (2022). Retrieved 5 January 2022, from https://www.etymonline.com/word/turmeric
- Prasad, S., & Aggarwal, B. (2011). Turmeric, the Golden Spice. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92752/
- Curcuma longa L. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science. (2022). Retrieved 5 January 2022, from https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:796451-1
- Sci-Hub | Curcumin: A Potent Protectant against Esophageal and Gastric Disorders | 10.3390/ijms20061477. (2022). Retrieved 5 January 2022, from https://sci-hubtw.hkvisa.net/10.3390/ijms20061477
- Zhang, D., Fu, M., Gao, S., & Liu, J. (2013). Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review. Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, 2013, 1-16. doi: 10.1155/2013/636053
- Ramirez Boscá, A., Soler, A., Carrión-Gutiérrez, M., Pamies Mira, D., Pardo Zapata, J., & Diaz-Alperi, J. et al. (2000). An hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa lowers the abnormally high values of human-plasma fibrinogen. Mechanisms Of Ageing And Development, 114(3), 207-210. doi: 10.1016/s0047-6374(00)00089-0
- GRAS Notices. (2022). Retrieved 11 January 2022, from https://www.cfsanappsexternal.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/?set=GRASNotices&sort=GRN_No&order=DESC&startrow=1&type=basic&search=turmeric
- Kumar, A., & Singh, A. (2008). Possible nitric oxide modulation in protective effect of (Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae) against sleep deprivation-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative damage in mice. Phytomedicine, 15(8), 577-586. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.02.003
- Suskind, D., Wahbeh, G., Burpee, T., Cohen, M., Christie, D., & Weber, W. (2013). Tolerability of Curcumin in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Journal Of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 56(3), 277-279. doi: 10.1097/mpg.0b013e318276977d
- A Comprehensive Guide to Turmeric for Dogs. (2022). Retrieved 5 January 2022, from https://www.veterinarians.org/turmeric-for-dogs/#Turmeric_Dosage_for_Dogs_How_Much_Turmeric_can_you_Give_a_Dog
- Al-Suhaimi, E., Al-Riziza, N., & Al-Essa, R. (2011). Physiological and Therapeutical Roles of Ginger and Turmeric on Endocrine Functions. The American Journal Of Chinese Medicine, 39(02), 215-231. doi: 10.1142/s0192415x11008762
- Prasad, S., & Aggarwal, B. (2011). Turmeric, the Golden Spice. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92752/
- Vaughn, A., Branum, A., & Sivamani, R. (2016). Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence. Phytotherapy Research, 30(8), 1243-1264. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5640
- Akbik, D., Ghadiri, M., Chrzanowski, W., & Rohanizadeh, R. (2014). Curcumin as a wound healing agent. Life Sciences, 116(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.08.016
- Henrotin, Y., Priem, F., & Mobasheri, A. (2013). Curcumin: a new paradigm and therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of osteoarthritis: curcumin for osteoarthritis management. Springerplus, 2(1). doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-56
- Dei Cas, M., & Ghidoni, R. (2019). Dietary Curcumin: Correlation between Bioavailability and Health Potential. Nutrients, 11(9), 2147. doi: 10.3390/nu11092147