Green tea is derived from the leaves and buds of the tea plant, an evergreen shrub native to northern India, Myanmar, Cambodia, and southern China, and possesses many health benefits. Green tea consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of lung, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine cancers. Studies found that it can serve as cognitive support and protect the brain from damage. The herb also contains cardioprotective properties. Researchers believe it is primarily the polyphenol and catechin content of green tea responsible for its health properties. Unlike oolong and black tea, produced via the oxidation and withering of the tea plant’s leaves and buds, green tea is made by heating, whether steaming or pan-frying and drying the plant parts.
According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, green tea is generally believed to be safe for consuming up to eight cups a day. Excessive consumption can cause gastrointestinal disturbance and nervous system stimulation, leading to insomnia, anxiety, and nervousness. It can also lead to liver-related adverse events, although, according to Jiang Hu et al., there is a “very low” incidence of these side effects in clinical trials. The researchers noted that consuming a traditional infusion of green tea is safe for the majority.
Although the powdered herb enclosed in tea bags is the most common type of green tea, it can also come in other forms. Supplements are sold in capsules, tablets, liquids, and raw powders. The top five green tea supplement manufacturers are Thorne, Vital Nutrients, Vitanica, Pure Encapsulations, and Gaia Herbs. Supplements are typically used for cardiovascular and cholesterol support, boosting energy levels, and weight management. Green tea has also been found to enhance the immune system due to its rich antioxidant content that protects the body from damaging free radicals.
Green tea supplements are found all over the world. With the scientific name Camellia sinensis, the tea plant is cultivated in parts of Japan and Sri Lanka. In the United States, the herb, which belongs to the Theaceae family, is grown on a few commercial tea farms dispersed across South Carolina, Alabama, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
What Are The Benefits Of Green Tea?
Green tea has been found to yield multiple positive health effects. Below are some of the benefits.
1. Improves Brain Function
Studies found that green tea improved brain function. Researchers Edele Mancini et al. concluded that green tea benefited cognition and brain function in their systematic review of 21 studies on the herb’s health effects. Of the studies analyzed by the team, Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara et al., in particular, found that green tea consumption was “significantly” associated with reduced cognitive decline. According to the researchers, the multivariate odds ratios for cognitive decline, either due to dementia or mild cognitive decline, were 1.00 for not consuming green tea, 0.47 for taking green tea for one to six days per week, and 0.32 for ingesting green tea daily. The researchers also found an inverse relationship between green tea consumption and the incidence of dementia in various age and sex models. In attempting to pinpoint the mechanism by which green tea works to improve cognition, the researchers noted that green tea contains polyphenols, particularly catechins such as epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) and myricetin. They indicated that the EGCG protected against amyloid toxicity by inhibiting its production and aggregation, while myricetin inhibited amyloid aggregation.
On the other hand, a study by Andre Schmidt et al. included in the systematic review of Edele Mancini et al. found that green tea yielded positive effects on working memory processing at the neural level. The researchers concluded this after analyzing the brain fMRI data of subjects who had consumed a milk whey-based drink containing 27.5 g of green tea extract. The researchers noted that increased parieto-frontal connectivity after tea consumption positively correlated with improved task performance.
Based on these studies, the minimum dosage for one to benefit from the brain function-enhancing effects of green tea is 27.5 g. Consultation with a healthcare professional is advised before consuming green tea supplements.
2. Increases Fat Burning
Green tea has been found to increase fat burning, making it a good supplement for weight management. In a systematic review of studies examining the herb’s effects on fat oxidation, researchers Adrian B. Hodgson et al. concluded that green tea extract positively affected resting fat metabolism when ingested short-term and long-term. A study by Lin-Huang Huang et al. also made the same conclusion after finding a “significant” reduction in the low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels of obese subjects who drank one green tea extract capsule 30 minutes after every meal three times a day for six weeks. According to the researchers, the daily intake of EGCG amounted to 856.8 mg. Researchers Lin-Huang Huang et al. noted that EGCG is responsible for green tea’s fat-burning properties by inhibiting catechol-o-methyltransferase, resulting in the degradation of norepinephrine and leading to lipolysis.
Based on the Lin-Huang Huang et al. study, three capsules of green tea extract or 856.8 mg of EGCG daily sufficed for one to benefit from the fat-burning properties of the herb. Consultation with a healthcare professional is still advised before consuming green tea supplements.
3. Lowers The Risk Of Some Cancers
Studies have found that green tea can reduce the risk of cancer. In their systematic review of studies from 1993 to 2017 looking into the effects of green tea in bladder cancer cell lines, researchers Yasuyoshi Miyata et al. concluded that green tea was a potential anti-bladder cancer agent, with clinical benefits expected when combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immune therapy, and molecular targeted therapy. Another study by Joel L. Schwartz et al. concluded that green tea might protect against human oral cancer. The researchers found this after finding a decrease in smoking-induced DNA damage, cell growth inhibition, and increased apoptosis markers in heavy smokers who consumed five cups of green tea for four weeks. According to the researchers, each cup contained 400 mg to 500 mg of green tea.
Researchers Joel L. Schwartz et al. stated that green tea’s EGCG content might be responsible for its anti-cancer properties. According to Arshad H. Rahmani et al., there are four possible mechanisms by which the herb helps prevent cancer and its progression: by inhibiting lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenase, and interleukin pathways which stop the tumor from growing; by activating tumor suppression genes, modulating apoptosis, and suppressing transcription factors that may be behind cancer development; by preventing free radical damage and the pathogenesis of the tumor with its antioxidant properties; and by regulating the genes that may be behind tumor progression.
Based on the Joel L. Schwartz et al. study, five cups of green tea daily sufficed for one to benefit from its anti-cancer properties, with each cup containing 400 mg to 500 mg of the herb. Consultation with a healthcare professional is advised before consuming green tea supplements.
4. Protects From Aging
Research has found that green tea can protect from aging. A study by Anne Chiu et al. observed an improvement in the elastic tissue content of subjects who used 10% green tea cream extract two times daily on the face and arms in conjunction with an oral intake of 300 mg of green tea capsules two times daily for eight weeks.
A study by Kyung Ok Lee et al. using animal models found that green tea could be used as an effective anti-wrinkle agent. They discovered that the skin conditions of subjects exposed to a 12-week UV irradiation improved after applying 200 μl of green tea after each instance of radiation for four weeks. The researchers noted an improvement in the skin erythema index, moisture capacity, and transepidermal water loss.
Another study using animal models by Kathryn Rutter et al. also noted that green tea delays collagen aging. They concluded this after observing in vitro that green tea extract consumed by adult subjects inhibited tendon crosslinking and suppressed fluorescent products, which are characteristic of aging. The researchers stated that subjects orally ingested 1.84 mg of green tea extract every day for 14 weeks.
The Kyung Ok Lee et al. study attributed the anti-aging properties of green tea to its polyphenol content, particularly EGCG. Their research showed that EGCG reduced UV-induced production of matrix metalloproteinases, particularly MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9, which led to collagen degradation, resulting in photodamage.
Based on the Anne Chiu et al. study, a regimen of 10% green tea extract cream applied two times daily and 300 mg of green tea capsule taken twice daily sufficed for one to benefit from the anti-aging effects of green tea. Consultation with a healthcare professional is advised before consumption of green tea supplements.
5. Reduces Bad Breath
Research has shown that green tea can also reduce bad breath. A study by Parth Lodia et al. found that the production of volatile sulfur compounds, responsible for bad breath, in subjects immediately decreased after consuming 670 mg of green tea powder or two tablets. The powder was left to dissolve directly on the back of the subject’s tongue and then swallowed. The researchers noted that green tea also exhibited “strong deodorant activities” based on an in vitro study that involved other substances such as mint, gum, and parsley oil. According to Parth Lodia et al., green tea subjects had an 88% reduction in malodor compared to those using the other substances.
An in vitro study by Hideyuki Yasuda et al. found that the EGCG component of green tea exhibited deodorizing activities against methyl mercaptan, which causes bad breath. The researchers noted that this deodorizing activity resulted from EGCG’s reaction with methyl mercaptan, which produced non-volatile compounds that added methylthio or a methylsulfinyl group to the ECGG B ring. The researchers noted that atmospheric oxygen is also needed to create the deodorizing effect.
Based on the Parth Lodia et al. study, 670 mg of green tea powder or two tablets sufficed for one to benefit from the offensive breath-reduction properties of green tea. Consultation with a healthcare professional is still advised before consuming green tea supplements.
6. Helps Prevent Diabetes
Green tea has been found to prevent diabetes. Researchers Hiroyasu Iso et al. concluded that the consumption of green tea is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, based on their follow-up screening of Japanese subjects aged 40 to 79, with a mean frequency of green tea consumption of 25.4 and 30.1 cups per week according to the subjects’ dietary records. The subjects underwent a follow-up screening and answered questionnaires about their illnesses five years after they experienced the same screening. The self-reported data on the existence (or non-existence) of diabetes was checked against the subjects’ laboratory results. According to the researchers, those who consumed six or more cups of green tea every day lowered their risk for diabetes by 33%.
Researchers Jia Nie et al. also observed the same inverse relationship between green tea consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes in their cohort study involving Chinese tea drinkers and non-drinkers aged 30 to 79 as subjects. According to the researchers, daily green tea consumption was associated with an 8% lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
According to Hiroyaso Iso et al., the EGCG content of green tea is responsible for these anti-type 2 diabetic properties. A study by Lu Gan et al. noted that EGCG might reduce insulin resistance and lower the risk for type 2 diabetes by fast-tracking insulin clearance by the insulin-degrading enzyme.
Based on the Hiroyasu Iso et al. study, six cups of green tea daily sufficed for one to benefit from this property. However, consultation with a healthcare professional is advised before consuming green tea health supplements.
7. Helps Prevent Cardiovascular Disease
Green tea has been found to help prevent cardiovascular disease. A large study by Jun Pang et al. involving 628 subjects and follow-ups after seven and 11 years found that the risk for coronary heart disease decreased in patients who drank green tea, with a “significant reduction” observed in male patients who consumed the concoction for 30 years. For females, the researchers concluded that drinking three cups daily of green tea could reduce their risk for the disease. The researchers noted that the risk of cardiovascular disease in men tended to decline as the number of cups consumed increased. In the study, the male green tea drinkers were classified into three categories, depending on the amount they consumed per month: those who drank less than 100 g, those who drank 100 g to 200 g, and those who drank more than 200 g. The researchers found that of the 253 individuals from the total study population who had coronary disease, 51.3% of male green tea drinkers yielded total cholesterol levels significantly lower than non-tea drinkers in the same category, even though both groups had the same characteristics such as ages, body mass index, coronary heart disease, and family history. Total cholesterol levels of 240 mg/dl and above are associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease.
According to the Jun Pang et al. study, the catechins in green tea have antioxidant properties, which may help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Pon Velayutham et al. also noted that these catechins exert vascular effects through other mechanisms: the suppression of enzymes that play a role in lipid biosynthesis and the reduction of intestinal lipid absorption that lead to an improvement in the lipid profile; the activation of endothelial nitric oxide that leads to vascular tone modulation; the prevention of vascular inflammation via, possibly their inhibition of leukocyte adhesion to endothelium; the suppression of the proliferation of vascular smooth cells, which may promote atherosclerosis; and the suppression of platelet adhesion, inhibiting thrombogenesis or blood clotting.
Based on the Jun Pang et al. study, drinking at least three cups of green tea daily can reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, consultation with a healthcare professional is still advised before consuming green tea supplements.
8. Helps You Live Longer
Green tea has also been found to reduce the risk of mortality for several diseases. An Ohsaki population-based study involving 51,255 Japanese adults concluded that green tea consumption was associated with reduced mortality due to illness, with the inverse relationship stronger in women. The researchers found that compared to subjects who consumed less than one cup of green tea daily, those who drank five cups or more daily had a cardiovascular disease mortality risk of 16% lower and 26% lower in the 11-year and seven-year follow-ups. The researchers noted the most substantial inverse relationship for deaths due to stroke.
Another large study involving 100,902 Chinese adults conducted by Xinyan Wang et al. concluded that habitual tea consumption is associated with reduced risks of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. According to the researchers, after a median of 7.3 years since their first assessment, the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval among the participants with tea-drinking habits, or those who drank at least three times per week, were 0.78 and 0.85 for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality. They found that habitual tea drinkers had 1.26 years more life expectancy, with 50 as the indexed age overall. Of the regular tea drinkers, the researchers noted that 49% reported consuming green tea more frequently.
According to the Ohsaki study by researchers Shinichi Kuriyama et al., the polyphenols in green tea, particularly EGCG, may be responsible for its positive effects that lead to a longer life. The EGCG, they noted, may promote the suppression of atherosclerosis or the hardening of arteries that can worsen cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, the Xinyan Wang et al. study indicated that the flavonoids in tea, especially green tea, such as epicatechin and catechin, attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation and improved endothelial and cardiomyocyte functions.
According to these studies, consuming green tea at least three times per week may help increase life expectancy. Consultation with a healthcare professional is still advised before consuming green tea supplements.
9. May Help in Bladder Cancer
Research has shown that green tea may exhibit anti-cancer properties. In their meta-analysis of in vivo and in vitro studies on the effects of green tea on cancer, Yasuyoshi Miyata et al. concluded that consuming green tea in conjunction with other strategies such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immune therapy, and molecular targeted therapy may yield clinical benefits to cancer patients, particularly those with bladder cancer. In concluding, the researchers noted that several in vitro and in vivo studies using animal models found that green tea inhibits the malignant behavior of cancer cell lines by preventing cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration and suppressing apoptosis. For instance, the study by J Karl Kemberling et al. using animal models found that the EGCG instilled intravesically suppressed the growth of the AY-27 bladder tumor cell line according to histological and gross analyses. After two hours of treatment, the researchers noted that a 100% cell death occurred after two hours of EGCG treatment at concentrations higher than 100 microns. Another in vitro study by Brian J. Philips et al. found that the EGCG and the epicatechin gallate (EGC) in green tea inhibited the growth of both normal and malignant human bladder cells.
Because clinical studies on the anticancer effects of green tea are limited to none, recommending a dosage for one to benefit from these properties is not possible. Consultation with a healthcare professional is advised before consuming green tea supplements.
10. Is Anti-Inflammatory
Research has shown that green tea has anti-inflammatory properties that help with rheumatoid arthritis and ocular inflammation. A study by Ahmad H. Alghadir et al. found that patients who consumed four to six cups of green tea per day with 60 mg to 125 mg of catechins in the form of EGCG and underwent an exercise regimen using a treadmill for 45 to 60 minutes three times per week for six months yielded higher European League Against Rheumatism and American College of Rheumatology scores, indicating that the herb and the regimen combined could be beneficial in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis disorders. Another study by Hsin Yi Huang, using animal models, found that nanoparticles made from EGCG and hyaluronic acid were potential therapeutic agents for dry eye syndrome caused by inflammation. The researchers concluded this after the subjects’ topical treatment with the nanoparticles in the form of eyedrops improved their dry eye syndrome and tear secretion. The nanoparticles contained 20 µg/mL of EGCG and were applied twice daily for three weeks. The Ahmad H. Alghadir study attributed the anti-inflammatory effects of green tea to its EGCG content, which has 25 to 100 times more antioxidant potential than vitamins C and E.
The recommended dosage of green tea varies depending on the inflammatory disease one wishes to address. For instance, four to six cups of green tea per day combined with exercise sufficed for treating rheumatoid arthritis. However, recommending a dosage for one to treat ocular inflammation is not possible since human studies on these are limited to none. Consultation with a healthcare professional is advised before consuming green tea supplements.
What Are The Risks (Side-Effects) Of Green Tea?
According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, green tea is considered safe for consuming up to eight cups daily. When taken in excess, the following side effects may result due to its caffeine content:
- Sleeping problems
However, these side effects are not as common as those reported after consuming other caffeinated beverages.
The following severe side effects may occur from excessive consumption of green tea, although the NCCIH noted that these are also uncommon:
- Liver problems: Michelle Molinari et al. reported the case of a 44-year-old woman who was transferred to a hospital’s intensive care unit due to worsening acute liver failure. The woman stated that she had been adhering to a weight loss program recommending exercise and daily oral intake of dietary supplements with 720 mg of green tea extracts.
- Congenital disabilities: The caffeine in green tea may pass on to a mother’s breast milk, affecting the breastfeeding infant. Therefore, the NCCIH recommends a maximum of six cups of green tea per day, equivalent to 300 mg of caffeine, for pregnant women.
What Is The Nutritional Profile Of Green Tea?
Green tea has a high nutritional value. Tea resulting from a three-minute infusion of green tea leaves yields protein (15%), amino acids (4%), fiber (26%), other carbohydrates (7%), lipids (7%), pigments (7%), minerals (5%), and phenolic compounds (30%). Green tea also contains potassium (92 to 151 mg/l), sodium (35 to 69 mg/l), calcium (1.9 to 3.5 mg/l), fluoride (0.8 to 2.0 mg/l), aluminium (1.0 to 2.2 mg/l), manganese (0.52 to 1.9 mg/l) and iron (0.02 to 0.128 mg/l). It also contains EGCG, ranging from 117 to 442 mg/l, EGC ranging from 203 to 471 mg/l, epigallocatechin (ECG) ranging from 16.9 to 150 mg/l, epicatechin (EC) ranging from 25 to 81 mg/l, and catechins, ranging from 9.03 to 115 mg/l. The caffeine content in green tea is pegged from 141 to 338 mg/l.
How Does Green Tea Work Within The Human Body?
Many of the studies that confirm the positive health effects of green tea highlight the primary role of EGCG and other polyphenols, such as myricetin. Once green tea enters the body, EGCG inhibits amyloid production and aggregation while myricetin suppresses amyloid aggregation, protecting against amyloid toxicity and improving brain function. The EGCG also inhibits catechol-o-methyltransferase, which degrades norepinephrine and leads to lipolysis, reducing fatty tissue volume.
The EGCG is also believed to suppress the lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenase, and interleukin pathways that prevent existing tumors from growing while activating tumor suppression genes and benefiting patients with cancer. Researchers believe the green tea component also exhibits anticancer properties through its antioxidant activity, which helps prevent free radical damage and the pathogenesis of tumors and regulates genes that may be behind tumor progression. It also modulates apoptosis and inhibits transcription factors that may play a role in cancer progression.
To protect the body from aging, EGCG is believed to decrease the production of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9, which results in collagen degradation. At the same time, it interacts with methyl mercaptan, the cause of bad breath, and helps generate the deodorizing effect in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. The green tea component also serves as cardiovascular support by inhibiting enzymes that play a role in lipid biosynthesis and reducing intestinal lipid absorption, which results in an improved lipid profile; activating endothelial nitric oxide resulting in the modulation of the vascular tone, and possibly suppressing leukocyte adhesion to endothelium, helping prevent vascular inflammation. The EGCG is also believed to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth cells, promoting atherosclerosis and platelet adhesion that can lead to blood clotting.
How Do You Determine The Correct Green Tea Dosage?
The correct green tea dosage depends on the health benefit one wishes to gain. For instance, research has found that for one to benefit from the brain function-enhancing properties of green tea immediately, the minimum dosage is 27.5 g. However, the recommended dosage for one to benefit from the fat-burning properties of the herb is three capsules of green tea extract or 856.8 mg of EGCG daily. According to research, five cups of green tea per day sufficed for one to benefit from anti-cancer properties, with each cup containing 400 mg to 500 mg of the herb.
To benefit from green tea’s anti-aging properties, a regime of a 10% green tea extract cream applied twice daily, and 300 mg of green tea capsules taken twice daily is recommended. Research has found that 670 mg of green tea powder or two tablets are required to benefit from the bad breath-reduction properties, while six cups of green tea daily may be necessary for one to help prevent diabetes 2. Based on research, the minimum amount is three cups daily to prevent cardiovascular disease, while consuming green tea at least three times weekly sufficed for increased life expectancy. To treat rheumatoid arthritis, the recommended dosage is four to six cups of green tea daily combined with exercise.
What Are The Most Common Questions For Green Tea Usage?
A check online shows that common questions revolve around green tea’s health benefits and possible side effects:
- What does green tea do to your body?
- Does green tea reduce belly fat?
- Who should not drink green tea?
- What are green tea’s benefits?
- What are the side effects of green tea?
- What are the uses of green tea for the skin?
What Are The Facts About Green Tea?
There are many interesting facts about green tea. For instance, Camellia sinensis, from which it is derived, is a slow-growing plant. Its small and young leaves and buds are used to make green tea, while its older leaves are reserved for creating black and oolong tea, and the older buds are used to create white tea.
Green tea is an inexpensive and popular beverage that only requires a kettle. Once the tea is brewed, it may or may not acquire the color green. Some green teas are yellow if they are brewed incorrectly. Green tea is also not naturally bitter, and if it is, it is likely the tea was not brewed the proper way.
How Is Green Tea Processed?
The leaves used to produce green tea are harvested by hand, regardless of whether the tea will be for personal or commercial consumption. According to Gardening Knowhow, a gardening website, heavy machinery can damage the leaves and render them unusable. The top two new leaves and leaf buds are picked for harvesting and can take place every seven to 15 days once the tender shoots are developed. The plucked leaves are laid on a tray for sun drying. Once dried, they have to undergo a process before being used for tea. The leaves can be steamed for one to two minutes and then placed under cold water, which is known as shocking. According to Gardening Knowhow, this ensures the leaves retain their color. The leaves should be soft, making it easy to roll them by hand, or a sushi mat can be used to roll them into tubes. The tubes are placed inside the oven to bake for 10 to 12 minutes at 215 degrees Fahrenheit (102 degrees Celsius). The resulting leaves are stored inside a sealed glass container for use in a typical tea preparation process once they have cooled and dried thoroughly.
Green tea capsules or tablets contain tea leaves in a concentrated form enclosed in vehicles, in the case of capsules, or solidified, in the case of tablets. The liquid extract from these leaves can also be used as-is or mixed with beverages, food, and skin creams. Researchers Satarupa Banerjee et al. stated that the main extraction processes for tea, apart from conventional solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction, are ultrasound-assisted extraction, high hydrostatic pressure, and supercritical fluid extraction. According to the researchers, ultrasound-assisted extraction, in particular, is the recommended method for better retention of green tea components since the process takes place at low temperatures that do not allow the evaporation of volatile content and the degradation of bioactive molecules. Microwave-assisted extraction, meanwhile, is recommended for the extraction of green tea’s polyphenol content because of the reduced time and energy consumed. Researchers Xi Jun et al. have described an ethanolic solvent method for extracting major catechins from green tea, with a solvent to tea ratio of 20 ml:1 g, and then ultrahigh pressure extraction with a 400 MPa pressure for 15 minutes. Proteins may also be extracted from green tea for use in the food industry as foaming gel or emulsifying agents. Theanine from green tea may be removed for that umami taste. Quan Vuong et al., for instance, describe the use of a water extraction method for 30 minutes, with a water to tea ratio of 20:1 mg/l and a tea particle size of 0.5 to 1 mm at 176 degrees Fahrenheit (80 degrees Celsius).
What Are The Supplement Forms Of Green Tea?
Although drinking is the most common form of green tea consumption, it is not the only one. Below are the other ways that green tea can be consumed to benefit from its health properties:
1. Green Tea Liquid Extract
Green tea liquid extract is the liquid content derived from green tea leaves in a more concentrated form. According to Pique Life, a tea website, green tea extracts are a decaffeinated combination of polyphenols from the Camellia sinensis plant. Whether in liquid or solid form (powder), green tea extracts are typically derived from green tea leaves that undergo any of the commercial extraction methods. Piping Rock, Benevolent Nourishment, Nature’s Answer, and Swanson are some of the green tea supplement manufacturers that produce green tea liquid extracts for oral intake. These green tea supplements are usually consumed by mixing a specific amount with water before drinking. Swanson recommends a dosage of two droppers (approximately 2 ml), while Benevolent Nourishment recommends 30 drops (about 1 ml).
Some supplement producers such as Roger and Gallet and Innis Free manufacture green tea creams for topical application and skincare purposes. While brands like Naturally Thinking also produce these liquid extracts for cosmetic use, they are generally mixed with other cosmetic products such as creams or soaps for topical application. Meanwhile, manufacturers such as Scent for Senses produce green tea liquid extracts for aromatherapy use.
Why Is Green Tea Liquid Extract Useful?
Green tea liquid extract is helpful because, when consumed orally, it allows for faster absorption and optimized use. The body does not need to break liquid extracts down for digestion. According to Medicare Europe, liquid extracts require only one to four minutes to be assimilated fully by the body. Green tea creams and liquid extracts for topical application and inhalation are also easy to use.
However, there are disadvantages to using green tea liquid extract. Because it is liquid and does not come in fixed amounts, users have a higher risk of overdosing than if they consume tablets or capsules, which come in fixed dosages. The amount of green tea liquid extract ingested, used topically, or inhaled by the patient ultimately depends on what they or a medical professional administers.
2. Green Tea Raw Powder
Green tea raw powder is derived from crushed green tea leaves and can be consumed in many ways. Human Nutramax, for instance, suggests mixing its supplement with cosmetic products such as soaps and creams for topical application and food and beverages for oral intake. Some brands, such as Premium Tea Club, enclose the raw powder in tea bags to drink as tea, the most common form of green tea consumption. Some studies that have affirmed the health benefits of green tea involved subjects who consumed the herb in its raw powder form. For instance, the Parth Lodia et al. study concluded that the recommended dosage for one to benefit from the bad breath-reducing properties of green tea is 670 mg of green tea powder or two tablets.
3. Green Tea Pills
Green tea raw powder or liquid extract can be enclosed in capsules or tablets for oral use. Some studies that affirmed the health benefits involved subjects who consumed green tea capsules. Based on the Anne Chiu et al. study, for instance, a regimen of 10% green tea extract cream applied twice daily, and 300 mg of green tea capsule taken twice daily is the minimum required for one to benefit from the anti-aging effects of green tea.
What Is The Etymology Of The Green Tea?
Tea as a beverage is divided by three primary names: tea, cha, or chai. The commonly used word “tea” may have been picked up by the Dutch from the Malay word “teh” or from “tê” in Min Chinese. Meanwhile, the term “cha,” is believed to be the oldest of the three introduced into the English language. It is believed to have been derived by the Portuguese from the Cantonese in the 1590s. The last term, “chai,” was derived from the northern Chinese’s pronunciation of “cha.” It picked up the “yi” ending from the Persian language as it traveled to Central Asia. It was introduced into the English language via the lingua franca of Pakistan and northern India in the 20th century.
According to BBC Food, the term “green” was used to refer to the emerald green color produced when the unprocessed and unfermented leaves of the tea plant are brewed. Not all green tea, however, has that green color. According to Mishry, a food site, green tea can also have brown to light yellow colors.
What Place Does Green Tea Have In Society And Culture?
Green tea plays an important role in society and culture. It is a staple in restaurants and households all over the world. In fact, according to Statista, tea is the second most consumed beverage worldwide, followed only by water. In 2018, global tea production was at 5.8 million metric tons, with China, Kenya, India, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia as the top producers based on volume. Tea plays a crucial role in Chinese culture and is common at weddings, with traditional tea ceremonies conducted to mark the unification of the families of the bride and the groom.
According to the UK Tea and Infusions Association, the United Kingdom has been consuming the beverage for over 350 years and is still considered one of the world’s largest tea consumers, with 84% of the population drinking the beverage. The US tea market is also booming, with $473 million worth of tea imported. The US tea market grew in 2021, with more Americans turning to the beverage as a destresser, based on a study sponsored by the Tea Association of the USA.
Although black tea still dominates the US market, green tea is rising in rank. According to the Allied Market Research, in 2019, the green tea leaves market was estimated at $1,191.91 million and had a projected compound annual growth rate of 6.8% from 2020 to 2027. By 2027, the market value is expected to reach $1,519.9 million. The Allied Market Research attributed this increase to a rise in consumers’ appearance and health consciousness. At the same time, Fortune Business Insights noted the increasing awareness of the relationship between overall wellbeing and the intake of antioxidant-rich foods and the growing trend among millennials to consume ready-to-drink beverages. Although tea bags are still the most common form of green tea used in the US because of easy storage and portability, Fortune Business Insights noted that green tea capsules and tablets are also expected to gain prominence because of the increased demand for dietary supplements.
What Are Some Food Recipes That Contain Green Tea?
Green tea can be used to add flavor to foods and beverages. Below are some recipes featuring the herb as a primary ingredient or a condiment:
- Spicy green tea noodles: The green tea adds an extra kick to noodles covered in tangy sesame sauce.
- Green tea oatmeal: The dish consists of oats blended with honey, vanilla cream, and milk sprinkled with green tea powder.
- Green tea bread: Green tea powder or loose green tea leaves can be used to add an earthy flavor to this food.
- Green tea chicken curry: This traditional curry is rich in antioxidants from the sprinkle of green curry powder.
What Are The Green Tea Parts?
The tea plant, or Camellia sinensis, has many parts that are listed below:
- Leaves: Green tea plant leaves are used to create tea and other products. They don’t have to be fully developed before being used in supplements. Leaf buds are also used to manufacture these products. The leaves are green, oval, and pointed at the tip.
- Flowers: The flowers are white and typically have five petals. They can have a diameter of up to four centimeters.
- Fruit: The fruit has three seeds and looks like a three-angled capsule.
What Is The History Of Green Tea?
According to Hackberry Tea, a tea website, green tea dates back to 2737 B.C., when Chinese Emperor Shennong mistakenly drank water with a loose green tea leaf that had fallen inside the cup. However, some historians noted that the origins of green tea date back to as far as 3,000 years ago, when people in Southeast Asia chewed the leaves for recreation. By the 5th century, tea became a staple in Chinese culture during the Tang dynasty, with formal tea ceremonies conducted across social classes. During this time, the process of steaming, which is typically associated with green tea, was developed. In the 18th century, the Japanese further pioneered the technique, which is still used to ensure the leaves’ green color is retained in the resulting beverage.
As a colony of Great Britain, which already had tea as a staple beverage, over 1 million pounds of tea were consumed in America in the 1760s, according to KitchenAid. After the US declared independence in 1776, the Americans continued to drink tea, but they observed a shift in their tea drinking patterns. In the 1800s, green tea in cold punches dominated the market instead of black tea. At the turn of the 20th century, sweetened iced tea increased in popularity, with green tea imported from China and Japan becoming the main ingredient for the beverage. However, when trade ties between China and Japan were cut off after World War II, Americans went back to drinking black tea. Green tea made a comeback in the 1960 and 1970s, with the growing interest in meditation, yoga, and the Eastern belief that the herb has healing properties.
What Are Other Plants Called Green Tea From Time To Time?
Green tea is sometimes confused with other plants because of their similarities. Below are some of these plants:
- Tea tree: This tree, with the scientific name Melaleuca alternifolia, is sometimes confused with the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, because of their its common name. The tea tree’s essential oil derived from the leaves also exhibits health properties like the tea plant.
- Manuka: Also called the New Zealand tea tree or the broom tea tree, Manuka, with the scientific name Leptospermum scoparium, is sometimes confused with the tea plant Camellia sinensis because of its similar common name.
- Common camellia: This plant, with the scientific name Camellia japonica, is sometimes confused with the tea plant Camellia sinensis because of itsr similar common name. Camellia japonica also belongs to the Theaceae family like Camellia sinensis.
- Chamomile: This plant, with the scientific name Chamaemelum nobile, is sometimes confused with Camellia sinensis because of its similar common name. Like Camellia sinensis, tea is also derived from chamomile.
Are Green Tea Supplements Approved By The Authorities?
No. The Food and Drug Administration regulates health supplements like green tea as dietary supplements, not as drugs. That means these supplements don’t need prior approval from the FDA to be sold. However, once they are on the market, the FDA starts exercising its safety monitoring function. It reviews supplement labels and promotional materials as its resources allow and monitors safety complaints about the product. The supplement manufacturer must report any complaints to the FDA within 15 days of receiving them.
Can You Take Green Tea At Night?
Yes, you can, but it is not recommended. According to the Food and Drug Administration, an 8 oz cup of green tea contains 30 to 50 mg of caffeine. Although the caffeine in green tea is less than what one would find in black tea, it may still prevent sleep. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, boosting alertness and energy levels. According to the FDA, the body also typically takes four to six hours to metabolize half of what it has consumed, which means even if the caffeine was consumed hours before bedtime, it might still keep one awake come bedtime.
Can You Take Green Tea After Meal?
You can, but it is not recommended to take it immediately after eating. Green tea contains tannins that may affect your body’s absorption of some nutrients from food. Researchers Renata Kazimierczak et al. reported that the tannin content in green tea ranged from 140 to 310 mg g-1 d.m. According to a study by Nicole M. Delimont et al., tannins reduced iron availability before the body absorbed the mineral by forming insoluble anti-nutritional mineral complexes. Because of this, Shikha Gala, a nutritionist, recommends drinking green tea at least one hour after a meal.
Can You Take Green Tea Every Day?
Yes, you can. Many of the studies that confirmed the health benefits of green tea involved subjects who consumed it daily. The Lin-Huang Huang et al. study, for instance, found that three capsules of green tea extract or 856.8 mg of EGCG daily is the minimum amount required to benefit from the fat-burning properties of the herb. The Joel L. Schwartz study recommended a daily intake of 400 to 500 mg of the herb daily for one to benefit from its anti-cancer properties. According to the Anne Chiu et al. study, a regimen of 10% green tea extract cream applied twice daily and an oral intake of 300 mg of green tea capsules taken twice daily sufficed for one to benefit from the anti-aging effects of the herb.
Can A Child Take Green Tea?
It depends on the child’s age. A study by Dr. Pamela Anderson published in the Nutrition and Food Technology Journal concluded that tea, whether green or black, is a “healthy drink to consume throughout childhood,” from 4 years old and above. The researcher noted that based on her analysis of scientific studies on the health effects of tea, habitual consumption is linked to better cognitive, cardiovascular, metabolic, mental, and bone health. Consultation with a healthcare professional is still advised before consuming green tea supplements.
Can Your Pet Consume Green Tea?
Yes, but only if the animal is a dog and if the tea is administered in controlled amounts. Anton C. Beynen noted in his study on green tea extract found in pet food and published in 2020 that a daily intake of up to 0.8 g of EGCG is considered safe for dogs that weigh 44 pounds. He said that the kibbled dog foods that specify EGCG as an ingredient typically contain less than 0.4%. In concluding that green tea was safe for dogs in these amounts, the researcher stated that the animal converts the EGCG and excretes it through urine and bile. However, Anton C. Beynen noted that no information about the maximum intake or proper administration of green tea in cats is available.
Which Tree Produces The Green Tea?
Green tea is derived from the leaves and leaf buds of the tea plant, with the scientific name Camellia sinensis. The plant parts can be ground into raw powder or processed to generate liquid extract, which may then be sold as they are or enclosed in capsules.
What Are The Top Scientific Research Topics For Green Tea?
A check online shows that green tea is of particular interest to researchers. Below are the top scientific research topics revolving around green tea:
- Beneficial effects of green tea
- Green tea: an overview
- The role of green tea in antiphotoaging, stress resistance, neuroprotection, and autophagy
- Effectiveness of green tea in a randomized human cohort
- Antioxidant activity of black tea vs. green tea
- The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea
What Is EGCG In Green Tea?
EGCG stands for epigallocatechin-3-gallate and is the primary catechin in green tea, accounting for 50% to 80% of the herb’s composition. According to Brahma N. Singh et al., that represents 200 mg to 300 mg per brewed cup of green tea.
EGCG is believed to be responsible for many of the herb’s health benefits. Research has proven that it possesses antioxidant properties and can help with inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cancer, and conditions related to the heart. Studies have also found that EGCG has anti-obesity properties and can help boost cognitive function.
Does Green Tea Contain Caffeine?
Yes, it does. Nutritionist Andrea Picincu states that one cup of green tea contains 25 mg to 29 mg of caffeine. This is less than the 25 mg to 48 mg of caffeine typically found in a similar cup of black tea and the 95 mg to 165 mg of caffeine found in one cup of coffee. Nevertheless, drinking green tea at night is still not recommended since caffeine might interfere with sleep.
Is Green Tea An Orthodox Tea?
Yes. Himangshu Deka et al. stated that in the orthodox processing of green tea, the endogenous enzymes in the herb are deactivated to prevent catechin oxidation, which is done by steaming or pan-firing the leaves. In the first process, the plucked leaves are subjected to steam at 215.6 degrees Fahrenheit (102 degrees Celsius) for one to two minutes. In the second method, the leaves are allowed to wither for two to three hours and then are pan-fired at 428 degrees Fahrenheit (220 degrees Celsius) for five minutes. The resulting leaves from each process are rolled and dried for five to 15 minutes. Green tea prepared this way has better sensory qualities and a more savory taste than tea prepared using the curl, tear, and crush method typically associated with black tea.
- National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. 2022. Green Tea. [online] Available at: <https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/green-tea> [Accessed 8 May 2022].
- Chacko, S., Thambi, P., Kuttan, R., & Nishigaki, I. (2010). Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review. Chinese Medicine, 5(1), 13. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-5-13
- Mancini, E., Beglinger, C., Drewe, J., Zanchi, D., Lang, U., & Borgwardt, S. (2017). Green tea effects on cognition, mood and human brain function: A systematic review. Phytomedicine, 34, 26-37. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.07.008
- Hu, J., Webster, D., Cao, J., & Shao, A. (2018). The safety of green tea and green tea extract consumption in adults – Results of a systematic review. Regulatory Toxicology And Pharmacology, 95, 412-433. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.019
- Sci-Hub | Effects of green tea extract on overweight and obese women with high levels of low density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C): a randomised, double-blind, and cross-over placebo-controlled clinical trial | 10.1186/s12906-018-2355-x. (2022). Retrieved 9 May 2022, from https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.1186/s12906-018-2355-x
- Hodgson, A., Randell, R., & Jeukendrup, A. (2013). The Effect of Green Tea Extract on Fat Oxidation at Rest and during Exercise: Evidence of Efficacy and Proposed Mechanisms. Advances In Nutrition, 4(2), 129-140. doi: 10.3945/an.112.003269
- Miyata, Y., ScienMatsuoces, T., Araki, K., Nakamura, Y., Sagara, Y., Ohba, K., & Sakai, H. (2018). Anticancer Effects of Green Tea and the Underlying Molecular Mechanisms in Bladder Cancer. Medicines, 5(3), 87. doi: 10.3390/medicines5030087
- Sci-Hub | Molecular and cellular effects of green tea on oral cells of smokers: A pilot study | 10.1002/mnfr.200400031. (2022). Retrieved 10 May 2022, from https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.1002/mnfr.200400031
- Rahmani, A., Al shabrmi, F., Allemailem, K., Aly, S., & Khan, M. (2015). Implications of Green Tea and Its Constituents in the Prevention of Cancer via the Modulation of Cell Signalling Pathway. Biomed Research International, 2015, 1-12. doi: 10.1155/2015/925640
- Sci-Hub | Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Green Tea Extracts in the Clinical and Histologic Appearance of Photoaging Skin | 10.1111/j.1524-4725.2005.31731. (2022). Retrieved 11 May 2022, from https://sci-hub.mksa.top/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2005.31731
- Lee, K., Kim, S., & Kim, Y. (2014). Anti-wrinkle Effects of Water Extracts of Teas in Hairless Mouse. Toxicological Research, 30(4), 283-289. doi: 10.5487/tr.2014.30.4.283
- Rutter, Sell, Fraser, Obrenovich, Zito, Starke-Reed, & Monnier. (2003). Green Tea Extract Suppresses the Age-Related Increase in Collagen Crosslinking and Fluorescent Products in C57BL/6 Mice. International Journal For Vitamin And Nutrition Research, 73(6), 453-460. doi: 10.1024/0300-98184.108.40.2063
- LODHIA, P., YAEGAKI, K., KHAKBAZNEJAD, A., IMAI, T., SATO, T., & TANAKA, T. et al. (2008). Effect of Green Tea on Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Mouth Air. Journal Of Nutritional Science And Vitaminology, 54(1), 89-94. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.54.89
- Yasuda, H., & Arakawa, T. (1995). Deodorizing Mechanism of (–)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Methyl Mercaptan. Bioscience, Biotechnology, And Biochemistry, 59(7), 1232-1236. doi: 10.1271/bbb.59.1232
- Iso, H., Date, C., Wakai, K., Fukui, M., & Tamakoshi, A. (2006). The Relationship between Green Tea and Total Caffeine Intake and Risk for Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese Adults. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 144(8), 554. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-144-8-200604180-00005
- Nie, J., Yu, C., Guo, Y., Pei, P., Chen, L., & Pang, Y. et al. (2021). Tea consumption and long-term risk of type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications: a cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab006
- Gan, L., Meng, Z., Xiong, R., Guo, J., Lu, X., & Zheng, Z. et al. (2015). Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease mice. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 36(5), 597-605. doi: 10.1038/aps.2015.11
- Pang, J., Zhang, Z., Zheng, T., Yang, Y., Li, N., & Bai, M. et al. (2015). Association of green tea consumption with risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese population. International Journal Of Cardiology, 179, 275-278. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.11.093
- Anandh Babu, P., & Liu, D. (2008). Green Tea Catechins and Cardiovascular Health: An Update. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 15(18), 1840-1850. doi: 10.2174/092986708785132979
- Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerosis. (2022). Circulation Research. Retrieved from https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/circresaha.115.306361
- 19. Kuriyama, S., Shimazu, T., Ohmori, K., Kikuchi, N., Nakaya, N., & Nishino, Y. et al. (2006). Green Tea Consumption and Mortality Due to Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and All Causes in Japan. JAMA, 296(10), 1255. doi: 10.1001/jama.296.10.1255
- Wang, X., Liu, F., Li, J., Yang, X., Yen, J., Cao, J., Wu, X., Lu, X., Huang, J., Li, Y., Zhao, L., Shen, C., Hu, D., Yu, L., Liu, X., Wu, X., Wu, S. and Gu, D., 2022. Tea consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: The China-PAR project. [online] European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. Available at: <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2047487319894685> [Accessed 12 May 2022].
- KEMBERLING, J., HAMPTON, J., KECK, R., GOMEZ, M., & SELMAN, S. (2003). Inhibition of Bladder Tumor Growth by the Green Tea Derivative Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate. Journal Of Urology, 170(3), 773-776. doi: 10.1097/01.ju.0000081278.64511.96
- Philips, B., Coyle, C., Morrisroe, S., Chancellor, M., & Yoshimura, N. (2009). Induction of apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells by green tea catechins. Biomedical Research, 30(4), 207-215. doi: 10.2220/biomedres.30.207
- Miyata, Y., ScienMatsuoces, T., Araki, K., Nakamura, Y., Sagara, Y., Ohba, K., & Sakai, H. (2018). Anticancer Effects of Green Tea and the Underlying Molecular Mechanisms in Bladder Cancer. Medicines, 5(3), 87. doi: 10.3390/medicines5030087
- Alghadir, A., Gabr, S., & Al-Eisa, E. (2016). Green tea and exercise interventions as nondrug remedies in geriatric patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal Of Physical Therapy Science, 28(10), 2820-2829. doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.2820
- Huang, H., Wang, M., Chen, Z., Chiu, W., Chen, K., & Lin, I. et al. (2018). Gelatin&ndash;epigallocatechin gallate nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid decoration as eye drops can treat rabbit dry-eye syndrome effectively via inflammatory relief. International Journal Of Nanomedicine, Volume 13, 7251-7273. doi: 10.2147/ijn.s173198
- Molinari, M., Watt, K., Kruszyna, T., Nelson, R., Walsh, M., & Huang, W. et al. (2006). Acute liver failure induced by green tea extracts: Case report and review of the literature. Liver Transplantation, 12(12), 1892-1895. doi: 10.1002/lt.21021
- Green Tea Extract – Health Encyclopedia – University of Rochester Medical Center . (2022). Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=19&contentid=greenteaextract
- Chacko, S., Thambi, P., Kuttan, R., & Nishigaki, I. (2010). Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review. Chinese Medicine, 5(1), 13. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-5-13
- Reto, M., Figueira, M., Filipe, H., & Almeida, C. (2007). Chemical Composition of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Infusions Commercialized in Portugal. Plant Foods For Human Nutrition, 62(4), 139-144. doi: 10.1007/s11130-007-0054-8
- Camellia sinensis (Assam Tea, Tea Camellia, Tea Plant, Tea Tree Camellia) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. (2022). Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/camellia-sinensis/
- 5 Surprising Facts About Green Tea | Tetley India. (2022). Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://www.tetley.in/blogs/5-surprising-facts-about-green-tea
- Grant, A. (2020). Harvesting Tea Plants – Tips On How To Harvest Camellia Sinensis. Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/herbs/tea-plant/harvesting-tea-plants.htm#:~:text=The%20secret%20to%20making%20great,to%20dry%20in%20the%20sun.
- Are Green Tea Capsules Good For You?. (2022). Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://www.green-tea-guide.com/green-tea-capsules.html
- Banerjee, S., & Chatterjee, J. (2014). Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules. Journal Of Food Science And Technology. doi: 10.1007/s13197-014-1487-3
- Jun, X., Shuo, Z., Bingbing, L., Rui, Z., Ye, L., Deji, S., & Guofeng, Z. (2010). Separation of major catechins from green tea by ultrahigh pressure extraction. International Journal Of Pharmaceutics, 386(1-2), 229-231. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.10.035
- Vuong, Q., Stathopoulos, C., Golding, J., Nguyen, M., & Roach, P. (2011). Optimum conditions for the water extraction of <scp>L</scp> -theanine from green tea. Journal Of Separation Science, 34(18), 2468-2474. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201100401
- Liquids vs Pills | Medicare Europe. (2022). Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://medicare-europe.co.uk/science-clinical-data/liquids-vs-pills.html
- Etymology of tea – Wikipedia. (2022). Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etymology_of_tea
- nutritionist, J. (2022). Is green tea good for you? | BBC Good Food. Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/health-benefits-green-tea
- What is the Color of Green Tea? – Mishry. (2019). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://mishry.com/green-tea-color
- How to Do a Chinese Wedding Tea Ceremony. (2021). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://thewoksoflife.com/how-to-do-a-chinese-wedding-tea-ceremony/
- Topic: Tea market in the United States. (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.statista.com/topics/1513/tea-market/#dossierKeyfigures
- Goggi, P., 2022. State of the U.S. Tea Industry: Review of 2021 and 2022 Predictions. [online] World Tea News. Available at: <https://www.worldteanews.com/issues-trends/state-us-tea-industry-review-2021-and-2022-predictions> [Accessed 13 May 2022].
- North America Green Tea Leaves Market Size, Share & Forecast, 2027. (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/north-america-green-tea-leaves-market-A06633#:~:text=The%20North%20America%20green%20tea,of%20%241%2C519.9%20million%20by%202027.
- Green Tea Market Size, 2. (2022). Green Tea Market Size, Share & Trends | Forecast [2020-2027]. Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/industry-reports/green-tea-market-100790
- Insanely Good. 2022. 10 Green Tea Recipes to Make At Home. [online] Available at: <https://insanelygoodrecipes.com/green-tea-recipes/> [Accessed 13 May 2022].
- Green Tea Cake. (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/242334/green-tea-cake/
- Green Tea Chicken Curry Recipe. (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.betternutrition.com/recipes/green-tea-chicken-curry-recipe/
- Green Tea Soup Recipe. (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/green-tea-soup
- Factsheet – Camellia sinensis (Tea Plant). (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Camellia_sinensis__(Tea_Plant).htm
- Green Tea 101 | The History & Processing Methods. (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.hackberrytea.com/blogs/tea-education/the-history-of-green-tea#:~:text=The%20origin%20of%20green%20tea,a%20new%20beverage%20was%20born.
- Origins and History of Green Tea – Teabox. (2017). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://tea101.teabox.com/green-tea-origins
- Tea Knowledge Base: Tea Drinking In The Tang Dynasty. (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from http://www.easterntea.com/tea/tang.htm
- Steeped in History: The Rise of Tea in America | KitchenAid Stories. (2020). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://stories.kitchenaid.com/article/steeped-in-history-the-rise-of-tea-in-america
- Browne, R. (2020). Plant Names Tell Their Stories: Camellia sinensis, the source of all true tea!. Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://cms.business-services.upenn.edu/morrisarboretum-blog/420-plant-names-tell-their-stories-camellia-sinensis-the-source-of-all-true-tea.html
- chamomile | Description, Uses, & Species. (2022). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/plant/chamomile
- Spilling the Beans: How Much Caffeine is Too Much?. (2021). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/spilling-beans-how-much-caffeine-too-much#:~:text=For%20reference%2C%20a%2012%20ounce,to%2080%20to%20100%20milligrams.
- Caffeine. (2020). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/caffeine/
- Delimont, N., Haub, M., & Lindshield, B. (2017). The Impact of Tannin Consumption on Iron Bioavailability and Status: A Narrative Review. Current Developments In Nutrition, 1(2), e000042. doi: 10.3945/cdn.116.000042
- Green tea at night – Can i take green tea after dinner??? can i | Practo Consult. (2019). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.practo.com/consult/green-tea-at-night-can-i-take-green-tea-after-dinner-can-i-take-1-chapati-and-1-bowl-of-brown-rice-in-dinner-how/q
- Pamela Mason, T. (2022). Tea and Wellness throughout Life. Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.sciforschenonline.org/journals/nutrition-food/NFTOA172.php
- Beynen, Anton. (2020). Green-tea extract in petfood. Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340332969_Green-tea_extract_in_petfood
- Singh, B., Shankar, S., & Srivastava, R. (2011). Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications. Biochemical Pharmacology, 82(12), 1807-1821. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.07.093
- ElKafas, H., Ali, M., & Al-Hendy, A. (2018). Leiomyomas. Encyclopedia Of Reproduction, 101-105. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-801238-3.64527-0
- Caffeine in Green Tea Vs. Black Tea | livestrong. (2020). Retrieved 13 May 2022, from https://www.livestrong.com/article/146904-caffeine-in-green-tea-vs-black-tea/
- Deka, H., Barman, T., Sarmah, P., Devi, A., Tamuly, P., Paul, R., & Karak, T. (2020). Quality characteristics of infusion and health consequences: a comparative study between orthodox and CTC green teas. RSC Advances, 10(54), 32833-32842. doi: 10.1039/d0ra06254e