Ginkgo Biloba Supplements (Pills and Tablets) Prices, Products, Brands, and Usage

Ginkgo biloba supplements are health products made from the leaf extract of the Ginkgo tree. They have been manufactured and made commercially available since 1965 in Germany. These supplements have different forms, including pills of capsules and tablets and powders of whole leaf and extracts. Many factors influence the price of the various supplement forms, like the concentration of Ginkgo, the number of doses per bottle, and the manufacturing companies’ costs and required profit margins. 

The top three Ginkgo supplement brands in the market are Pure Encapsulations, Wise Woman Herbals, and Klaire Labs. The leading Ginkgo biloba growers are China, France, and the United States, specifically South Carolina. According to Marketwatch, Europe dominated the revenue market share of Ginkgo biloba extract at forty-five percent, followed by China at thirty-seven percent. The Ginkgo biloba supplements have been used primarily as memory support, vasodilation, altitude sickness remedy, and vision enhancement.

What are the Ginkgo Biloba Supplement Brands?

Because Ginkgo biloba is a popular herbal product, it is formulated into supplement form by various companies. Some of the top Ginkgo biloba supplement brands include:

  • Pure Encapsulations
  • Wise Woman Herbals
  • Vital Nutrients
  • Thorne Research
  • Klaire Labs

All five of these top brands have been in the supplement manufacturing business for more than five years each. They each have impressive reputations, and they are very well-known in the medical field due to being practitioner brands (brands prescribed primarily by physicians). 

The differences in the Ginkgo products among these companies depend on the dosage per pill, preparation components, and supplement form. Pure Encapsulations-Ginkgo 50 contains 160 mg of 50:1 Ginkgo biloba extract containing 24% ginkgoheterosides and 6% terpene lactones in each vegcap (vegetable capsule), while Vital Nutrients- Ginkgo 50:1 Extract has 80 mg per vegcap. Vegcaps are all-natural capsule shells made from plant cellulose used to contain medicinal powder. Wise Woman Herbals manufactures Ginkgo biloba extract from 1:1 fresh + dry Ginkgo leaves in a base of organic cane alcohol, spring water, and vegetable glycerin. Thorne Research incorporates 240 mg Ginkgo ingredients with other extracts (Ashwagandha and Bacopa). Klaire Labs manufactures a product made of pure Ginkgo extract of 24% flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones and another product with full-spectrum plant extracts like Ginkgo, red grape, bilberry, milk thistle, and green tea.

What are the Ginkgo Biloba Supplements?

The processing forms of Ginkgo biloba can either be a whole leaf or an extract, EGb 761 (the registered name for standardized Ginkgo biloba extract containing 24% flavonglycosides and 6% terpene lactones). The manufactured Ginkgo supplement can be taken in different delivery forms:

  1. Pills: This delivery form can either be a tablet or capsule. Tablets can be made purely of Ginkgo biloba or with other components. Capsules can contain the standardized 24% or can have 10-12% ginkgoflavonoids. Klaire Labs produces two variants of Ginkgo biloba. Trade name TheraFlavone utilizes 40 mg of standardized Ginkgo extract among other components, while Klaire Labs Ginkgo Biloba contains pure 80 mg of 24% ginkgoflavonoids and 6% terpene lactones. 
  2. Powder: This form is from organic Ginkgo leaf extract that is filler-free. It contains no carrier oil, gelatin, or other compounds, which may be in other supplement forms.
  3. Tea: This preparation involves the use of Ginkgo biloba dried leaves. Compared to tablets and capsules, powdered Ginkgo leaves are less likely to contain and deliver the standard formulation.

What are the Criteria for Choosing a Ginkgo Biloba Supplement?

In a study led by Cara Peters, consumers take dietary supplements to improve physical health and gain peace of mind. Ginkgo biloba end users look into the following criteria in choosing the best Ginkgo product.

  1. Brand reputation: The quality of Ginkgo Biloba supplements depends on the manufacturing process. A company with tenure in the supplement industry has proven its capacity and has complied with the standards required in supplement production. It is also crucial that the company has good reviews from its customers.
  2. Standard formulation: If using a standardized extract instead of a whole leaf product, Ginkgo biloba should be a standardized 24% ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones formulation.
  3. Certification: There should be third-party certification on the product label from an independent laboratory such as Consumer Labs or NSF International. 

Based on the criteria, the best Ginkgo supplement brands are Pure Encapsulations and Wise Woman Herbals. Both brands adhere to the standards of Ginkgo biloba preparation, have a good reputation, and are certified by NSF-GMP and UL LLC GMP, respectively. A Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certification guarantees that the health product has been manufactured following standard protocols to ensure safety and consistent quality.

Which Ginkgo Biloba Supplement is Better for Memory?

The Ginkgo biloba supplement manufactured by Thorne Research- Memoractiv has been sold in the market primarily for memory enhancement. This supplement for memory contains a combination of ingredients (researched and trademarked) found to improve cognitive functioning like concentration, mental focus, motivation, and reaction time. Memoractiv contains 240 mg of Virtiva, a Ginkgo phytosome brand that helps to improve reaction time for mental tasks. Another component is 300 mg Ashwagandha extract, an Ayurvedic medicinal herb that has cognition promoting effect in memory deficit in children and loss of memory in old age. For mental focus and alertness, it has a Pterostilbene/caffeine (PurEnergy) component. This ingredient enhances the sense of well-being and mood by lowering cortisol levels and stress.

In a study led by R. Kaschel, healthy individuals aged 45-56 years old taking 240 mg of Ginkgo biloba per day exhibited improved free recall of appointments requiring high demands of self-initiated learning retrieval. A daily dose of 240 mg of Ginkgo biloba is equivalent to two capsules of Memoractiv supplement.

The following end-users would highly benefit from Ginkgo biloba supplement intake:

  • Sports enthusiasts who want to increase their reaction time
  • Aging baby boomers (57 to 75 years of age) for mental dexterity
  • Generation X (41 to 56 years old ) and Millennials (ages 25 to 40) in maintaining a cognitive edge
  • Overworked Students 
  • Individuals stressed due to a technologically fast-paced lifestyle

Which Ginkgo Biloba Supplement is Better for Weight Loss?

Currently, there is no scientific research showing evidence of Ginkgo biloba as a supplement for weight loss in humans. There is, however, a study done by Bruna Hirata and the team on the potential anti-obesogenic effect of Ginkgo in the epididymal white adipose tissue of obese rats. After two weeks of Ginkgo treatment, there was a decrease in energy intake and adipose volume and accumulation. More studies are needed to expand the information on the effect. 

While not necessarily a supplement for weight loss, Ginkgo biloba possesses fat or lipid metabolism properties. After a two-month 120 mg twice daily dose of  EGb761, there was a reduction in the atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation of eight study subjects in a study led by M. Rodriguez. The effect was attributed to an upregulation of the body’s own radical scavenging enzymes and a reduction in the risk factors for lipoprotein increase.

Vital Nutrients- Ginkgo 50:1 Extract is formulated to contain the standardized concentration of Ginkgo biloba. It is free of artificial coatings, gluten, dairy products, soy and egg protein, and sugar. The brand ensures that all product batches produced are tested for purity of ingredients and superior quality. Three vegcaps of Vital Nutrients Ginkgo daily totals the dosage needed for lipid metabolism.

 

Ginkgo Biloba Supplement Content Image 1

 

Which Ginkgo Biloba Supplement is Better for Hair Loss?

Pure Encapsulations- Ginkgo 50 contains 160 mg of Ginkgo leaf extract standardized to 24% ginkgoheterosides and 6% terpene lactones. It is certified gluten and GMO-free. The product can be used as a supplement for hair loss as its active ingredients support oxygen and blood circulation by promoting strength and elasticity of the blood vessels and capillaries. Good blood flow to the different areas in the body, especially the scalp, delivers oxygen and the needed nutrients to promote hair growth.

A study was done by Japanese researchers on C3H strain mice (crossbreed between the Bragg albino mouse and DBA mouse). The team led by N. Kobayashi fed 70% ethanolic extract of Ginkgo leaves to the mice with shaved posterior backs. The result suggests that Ginkgo biloba promotes hair regrowth. 

The recommended dose of this hair loss supplement is one to two capsules per day, in divided doses, between meals. 

Which Ginkgo Biloba Supplement is Better for Vertigo?

A clinical trial was performed by neurologist Larysa Sokolova and her team on 160 study subjects. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba and betahistine in patients with vertigo. Betahistine is an antivertiginous agent commonly prescribed for persons suffering from vertigo. In the double-blind study, participants 45 years or older took either 240 mg of Ginkgo biloba (120 mg twice a day) or 32 mg per day of betahistine dihydrochloride (16 mg two times daily). After 12 weeks, both groups reported improved symptoms and reduced severity and disability due to vertigo.

Another controlled study tested 44 participants with dizziness, vertigo, or both. After a month of taking Ginkgo biloba 80 mg twice a day, 65% of the subjects showed improved symptoms and enhanced visuovestibulo-ocular reflex.

Vital Nutrients- Ginkgo Extract (50:1 Extract) contains the exact dosage of Ginkgo biloba to help address vertigo problems. With its raw product made from standardized concentration, this supplement for vertigo guarantees purity and potency. The recommended dosage is two vegetarian capsules a day or as recommended by a healthcare professional.

Which Ginkgo Biloba Supplement is Better for Sex Drive?

Wise Woman Herbals Ginkgo biloba is produced from wildcrafted fresh and dry leaves of Ginkgo biloba. This extract supplement possesses a nutty with woody notes flavor and a subtle sweet aftertaste. Adding 20-60 drops to water one to four times per day will deliver the desired health benefits for cognition, sex drive, and overall health. 

A pilot study conducted using a food supplement containing Ginkgo biloba extract (25% ginkgoflavonoids) demonstrated a significant improvement in sexual function and related hormones. The researchers then gave the same dose to postmenopausal women aged 45-65 and they too had an increase in testosterone. Testosterone is a male sex hormone that promotes maturation, preservation, and repair of women’s reproductive tissues and bone mass when combined with estrogen (female sex hormone). In another research study performed by R. Basson and his colleagues, testosterone increased sexually rewarding events in women with low sexual libido.

An open trial by Alan Cohen and his team tested the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Participants were experiencing sexual side effects from taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), an antidepressant used in major depressive and anxiety disorders. After a 4-week trial period, Ginkgo biloba effectively alleviated 84% of the antidepressant-induced sexual symptoms. There was a higher effect in women than men, with the relative success of 91% and 76%, respectively. Moreover, the extract had positive effects on all four phases of the sexual response cycle: desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution.

A great supplement for sex drive support is Male X Booster, manufactured by Douglas Labs. This Ginkgo biloba supplement combines other extracts (Horny Goa weed, Maca root, and Ginseng) that have proven positive effects in increasing libido. Consumers can take the recommended 4 capsules per day for better sexual health and well-being.

Which Ginkgo Biloba Supplement is Better for Vision?

In addition to its cognitive benefits, the Thorne Research product, Memoractiv, is also the best supplement for vision support. A study on the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on ocular blood flow was conducted by H.S. Chung and his team. After two days of taking 40 mg of GBE thrice daily, the experimental group showed no change in the heart rate, intraocular pressure, and arterial blood pressure. However, there was a substantial increase in the end-diastolic velocity in the ophthalmic artery. In other words, there was an increase in blood supply reaching the eyes. 

Another study by Jong Woon Park and his team provided evidence of the short-term effects of Ginkgo biloba on peripapillary retinal blood flow in persons with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). NTG is a type of glaucoma where there is optic nerve damage with normal intraocular pressure. Study subjects composed of 53.3% females and 46.7% males with 73.3% below 65 years old took 80 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract orally twice a day. After four weeks, there was a significant increase in ocular blood flow, volume, and velocity. Researchers Cybulska-Heinrich and team also contributed probable evidence as to the role of Ginkgo biloba as an adjunct therapy both for normal tension and high tension glaucoma. 

Memoractiv users also benefit from blue light support due to the ingredient, Lutemax 2020 (patented marigold extract containing lutein and zeaxanthin isomers, which supports eye health and vision performance). It helps to filter high-energy blue light from cell phones, laptops, and other blue-light sources. It also supports visual function under bright light conditions. End users who spend most of their working hours in front of computer screens and individuals working outside in bright sunlight could benefit from Memoractiv.

Which Ginkgo Biloba Supplement is Better for Aging?

Studies have linked aging with a decline in mitochondrial quality and activity. This further suggests that efforts to restore cellular function are an effective strategy to combat aging. The mitochondria are the part of a cell that makes most of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the cell’s energy source. According to the findings of J. Sastre and his team, Ginkgo biloba prevents the oxidative stress (imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants) that occurs upon aging. The treatment of 100 mg of EGb 761 per kg of body weight per day on male Wistar rats also prevented age-associated change in mitochondrial complexity. The average weight of a North American adult is 80.7 kg (177.9 lbs). With the Ginkgo treatment from the study, it would be a dose of 8,070 mg for an average adult in the United States of America.  

Klaire Labs- TheraFlavone contains 40 mg Ginkgo biloba and other herbal extracts (bilberry and red grape extract). These extracts are proven to help in preventing cell damage owing to their antioxidant properties with well-documented biochemical actions. The company has been a market player for 50 years adhering to product purity, rigorous quality control, and hypoallergenicity. Taking one to two capsules a day helps to prevent aging at a cellular level.

What are the Price Factors for Ginkgo Biloba Supplements?

According to the 2021 Consumer Survey conducted by the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), 80% of Americans are taking dietary supplements. That is an increase of seven percent from the 73% the CRN reported in 2020. These figures contribute to the market price of dietary products. The average price of a bottle of Ginkgo biloba supplement in the market is $17.99. The price can go as high as $107.00 and as low as $5.56, depending on the size and quality. Other factors affecting the pricing of Ginkgo biloba supplements are:

  1. Source of Ingredients: Products that source higher quality US growers cost more than products with lower source quality.
  2. Raw Materials: Supplies used in manufacturing the Ginkgo biloba supplements, like the extract, are priced higher compared to synthetic ingredients. GBE is a natural resource and is developed after concrete research and financial investment to ensure efficacy and safety.
  3. Supplement Form: The Ginkgo extract undergoes accurate processes for a standardized formulation. This form requires an additional budget compared to the powder/tea form of Ginkgo biloba.
  4. Branded Ingredients: Some Ginkgo biloba supplements are produced with other patented ingredients contributing to the higher manufacturing cost of the product.
  5. Packaging: The pill form of Ginkgo biloba usually uses vegan capsules, which have a higher price than tablets. Capsules are easier to digest, and the body can use the ingredients better. On the other hand, tablets take more time to digest because they are pressed densely to stay in their form.
  6. Testing and Certifications: Ingredient verification processes and authentications from third-party organizations incur additional costs. 

What is the Average Delivery Timing for Ginkgo Biloba Supplements?

The majority of the studies conducted on the health benefits of Ginkgo biloba supplements used a divided dose of 120-240 mg daily. As for individuals already experiencing cognitive decline, a dosage of 40-120 mg taken three times per day is recommended. 

Based on these recommended dosages, the bioavailability and half-life of Ginkgo biloba were reviewed by A. Biber and the team. Bioavailability is the capacity of a drug/supplement to be absorbed and used in the body, while half-life is the period it takes for the active substances of a drug to be reduced in half in the body from the original amount. This is crucial in estimating the period needed for the supplement to be excreted from the body. The researchers examined the concentration of the active ingredients (ginkgolides, bilobalide, and flavonol glycoside) after Ginkgo administration.

For 80, 120, and 240 mg doses, Ginkgo reached bioavailability within one hour with the following plasma concentrations: 15.2, 25.3, and 24.9 ng/ml for ginkgolide A; 6.53, 9.12, and 1811 ng/ml for ginkgolide B; and 30.2, 35.2, and 58.6 ng/ml for bilobalide, respectively. As for the half-life of Ginkgo biloba, researchers recorded 1.8 hours for ginkgolide A, 2.2 hours for ginkgolide B, and 2.3 hours for bilobalide. 

Food ingestion did not influence the pharmacokinetics of Ginkgo biloba, though consuming it with meals may help in the speed of absorption.

How is the Ginkgo Biloba Supplement Produced?

Ginkgo biloba supplements undergo meticulous controlled steps from harvesting leaves to fabricating the Ginkgo extract.

Step One: The still-green leaves of Maidenhair Tree are harvested from farms in the United States, Japan, India, China, and other places. Determined by assay results of the principal constituents of the leaves, they are picked at the most favorable period. An on-site agricultural engineer ensures the leaves are not chemically-treated upon harvesting.

Step Two: The harvested leaves are dried as collected in a programmed temperature dryer. They lose ¾ of their weight in water during this process. The dried leaves are pressed into bales to protect against humidity risking fermentation.

Step Three: The bales are shipped, stored and treated for extract production.

Step Four: The fabrication of Ginkgo biloba extract starts with continuous extraction using methanol or acetone-water mixture under partial vacuum. Pressurized water extraction or supercritical fluid extraction is also possible. Once the organic solvent is eliminated, a series of treatment phases follow to eliminate undesirable substances and concentrate the extract of active principles:

  1. The concentrated extract solution undergoes continuous evaporation in a microwave tunnel oven.
  2. The extract is subjected to analytical control to ensure consistency of composition and quality of the product.
  3. Verification of the components is done by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography. The extract is also calibrated by comparison with a reference extract.

Step Five: The Ginkgo biloba extract is prepared and packed in pill or remains in liquid form for commercial distribution.

 

 

What are the Labels Like for Ginkgo Biloba Supplements?

Ginkgo biloba has been available in the market since 1965. As with other health supplements, end-users need to check these labels before buying:

  1. Ingredients: Most Ginkgo biloba supplements consist of pure extract, while some include other compounds, oils, and botanical extracts. Knowing the composition of the supplement will help the consumer attain the desired health benefit.
  2. Concentration: The commercially available Ginkgo biloba products are standardized to contain 24% glycosides and 6% terpene lactones (EGb 761). This preparation is of high-quality Ginkgo, with numerous studies supporting the positive effects for the body. Several products are labeled 50:1 Ginkgo extract, which means that a 300 mg dosage is equivalent to 0.53 ounces (15 grams) of Ginkgo dry leaves when considering its active ingredients.
  3. Dosage: Ginkgo biloba supplements are manufactured containing 40 to 120 mg of Ginkgo per capsule. It is best to check the dosage to ascertain the number of pills to take daily.
  4. Size: Each Ginkgo supplement brand differs in its packaging. For first-time use, it is advisable to buy the smaller size in case the product does not suit you.
  5. Brand: The manufacturer is a crucial aspect when buying a Ginkgo product. Reputable companies produce premium-grade supplements maintaining standard protocol during production. They also have certifications from third-party organizations to check the purity and maintain the quality of their products. 

Are Gluten-Free Ginkgo Supplements Better Than Non-Gluten-Free Ginkgo Supplements?

Gluten-free ginkgo supplements are better than non-gluten-free ginkgo supplements since they do not contain gluten or ingredients that come from wheat, rye, or barley. The starches found in non-gluten-free ginkgo supplements can be used in tablets and capsules as excipients, diluents, disintegrants, or binding agents in low-quality supplement manufacturers. Due to the assurance that there are no hidden gluten compounds in gluten-free ginkgo supplements, people with certain health conditions, such as Celiac disease, prefer them.

How Does Premier Formulas Choose The Best Ginkgo Supplements?

At Premier Formulas we only select ginkgo supplements that have undergone an extensive assessment of documented proof that the manufacturing company follows federal cGMP regulations and guidelines. Samples of their products from our own inventory must also pass initial and quarterly randomized testing from independent laboratories. Our key mission is to provide high-quality supplements and the information for our patrons to use them in an educated, effective and safe manner. We want you to know that we care about your health when choosing your ginkgo supplements. After all, we give the same products to our family as we provide to you and your family. 

Does Premier Formulas Accept Refunds for Ginkgo Biloba Supplements?

Yes, Premier Formulas accepts Ginkgo supplement returns for a 100% refund within 30 days of purchase. Please take note of the following steps and conditions.

  1. Should you need a refund, kindly:
  2. Call or text: 888-908-8109
  3. Send a chat message via our FB page
  4. Write an email: [email protected]premierformulas.com
  5. Any opened or unopened tablet/pill form of Ginkgo biloba supplement is 100% refundable if within 30 days from the purchase date. Please note that we can only accept one opened package of any product type. 

Resources

  1. (2003). EGb 761. Drugs in R&D, 4(3), 188–193. doi:10.2165/00126839-200304030-00009 
  2. Isah, T. (2015). Rethinking Ginkgo biloba L.: Medicinal uses and conservation. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 9(18), 140. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.162137
  3. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Market Size, Growth 2021 Global Opportunities, Trends, Regional Overview, Leading Company Analysis, And Key Country Forecast to 2027. (2021). Retrieved 17 November 2021, from https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/ginkgo-biloba-extract-market-sizegrowth-2021-global-opportunities-trends-regional-overview-leading-company-analysis-and-key-country-forecast-to-2027-2021-11-17
  4. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgo biloba Extracts. (2003). Pharmacopsychiatry, 36, 32-37. doi: 10.1055/s-2003-40446
  5. Cindy M. Meston; Alessandra H. Rellini; Michael J. Telch (2008). Short- and Long-term Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Sexual Dysfunction in Women. , 37(4), 530–547. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9316-2 
  6. Singh, N., Bhalla, M., De Jager, P., & Gilca, M. (2011). An Overview on Ashwagandha: A Rasayana (Rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. African Journal Of Traditional, Complementary And Alternative Medicines, 8(5S). doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5s.9
  7. Kaschel, R. (2011). Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine, 18(14), 1202-1207. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2011.06.021
  8. Rodríguez, M., Ringstad, L., Schäfer, P., Just, S., Hofer, H., Malmsten, M., & Siegel, G. (2007). Reduction of atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation and size by Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in cardiovascular high-risk patients. Atherosclerosis, 192(2), 438-444. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.02.021
  9. KOBAYASHI, N., SUZUKI, R., KOIDE, C., SUZUKI, T., MATSUDA, H., & KUBO, M. (1993). Effect of Leaves of Ginkgo biloba on Hair Regrowth in C3H Strain Mice. YAKUGAKU ZASSHI, 113(10), 718-724. doi: 10.1248/yakushi1947.113.10_718
  10. Hibino T, Nishiyama T. Role of TGF-β2 in the human hair cycle. J Dermatol Sci. 2004;35:9–18.
  11. Sokolova, L., Hoerr, R., & Mishchenko, T. (2014). Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 and Betahistine. International Journal Of Otolaryngology, 2014, 1-6. doi: 10.1155/2014/682439
  12. A Cesarani, F Meloni, D Alpini, S Barozzi, L Verderio, P F Boscani. (1998). Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders, 15(15):291-304. PMID: 10345150
  13. Cohen, A., & Bartlik, B. (1998). Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Journal Of Sex & Marital Therapy, 24(2), 139-143. doi: 10.1080/00926239808404927
  14. Basson, R. (2010). Review: Testosterone therapy for reduced libido in women. Therapeutic Advances In Endocrinology And Metabolism, 1(4), 155-164. doi: 10.1177/2042018810379588
  15. Sun, N., Youle, R., & Finkel, T. (2016). The Mitochondrial Basis of Aging. Molecular Cell, 61(5), 654-666. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2016.01.028
  16. Sastre, J., Millan, A., de la Asuncion, J., Pla, R., Juan, G., & Pallardo, F. et al. (1998). A Ginkgo Biloba Extract (EGb 761) Prevents Mitochondrial Aging by Protecting Against Oxidative Stress. Free Radical Biology And Medicine, 24(2), 298-304. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5849(97)00228-1
  17. Banin, R., Machado, M., de Andrade, I., Carvalho, L., Hirata, B., & de Andrade, H. et al. (2021). Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) attenuates obesity and anxious/depressive-like behaviours induced by ovariectomy. Scientific Reports, 11(1). doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-78528-3
  18. Hirata, B., Cruz, M., de Sá, R., Farias, T., Machado, M., & Bueno, A. et al. (2019). Potential Anti-obesogenic Effects of Ginkgo biloba Observed in Epididymal White Adipose Tissue of Obese Rats. Frontiers In Endocrinology, 10. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00284
  19. Size, F., Size, F., & WIRE, B. (2021). CRN Reveals Initial Data from 2021 Consumer Survey on Dietary Supplements. 
  20. Listing Category Search Page | NSF International. (2021). Retrieved 22 November 2021, from https://info.nsf.org/Certified/GMP/Listings.asp?Company=C0006061
  21. Ginkgo Biloba Supplements Review | ConsumerLab.com | ConsumerLab.com. (2021). Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  22. Okleshen Peters, Cara Lee; Shelton, Jeremy; Sharma, Praveen (2003). An Investigation of Factors That Influence the Consumption of Dietary Supplements. Health Marketing Quarterly, 21(1-2), 113–135. doi:10.1300/J026v21n01_06 
  23. CHUNG, H., HARRIS, A., KRISTINSSON, J., CIULLA, T., KAGEMANN, C., & RITCH, R. (1999). Ginkgo biloba Extract Increases Ocular Blood Flow Velocity. Journal Of Ocular Pharmacology And Therapeutics, 15(3), 233-240. doi: 10.1089/jop.1999.15.233
  24. Park, J., Kwon, H., Chung, W., Kim, C., & Seong, G. (2011). Short-Term Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Peripapillary Retinal Blood Flow in Normal-Tension Glaucoma. Korean Journal Of Ophthalmology, 25(5), 323. doi: 10.3341/kjo.2011.25.5.323
  25. Arend, O. (1995). The Relationship of Macular Microcirculation to Visual Acuity in Diabetic Patients. Archives Of Ophthalmology, 113(5), 610. doi: 10.1001/archopht.1995.01100050078034
  26. A.K. Cybulska-Heinrich, J. (2012). Ginkgo biloba: An adjuvant therapy for progressive normal and high tension glaucoma. Molecular Vision, 18, 390. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3283204/
  27. Drieu, K. (1988). Preparation and Definition of Ginkgo Biloba Extract. Rökan, 32-36. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-73686-5_3
  28. Ginkgo. (2021). National Library Of Medicine (US). PMID: 30000868

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

Scroll to Top