Ashwagandha Features And Uses

Ashwagandha: Benefits, Side-Effects, Supplements, Uses, And Capsules

Ashwagandha, also called Indian ginseng or Indian winter cherry, is a plant that is native to Asia and Africa but can grow in other areas where there are temperate climates. Ashwagandha’s scientific name is Withania somnifera. It belongs to the Solanaceae family. This herb with yellow flowers is considered an adaptogen, which are agents that help the body maintain homeostasis or the state by which all internal processes are balanced and stable. According to Alexander Panossian et al, who conducted a meta-analysis of studies on adaptogens, this ability to maintain homeostasis is what gives adaptogens their stress-protective abilities. In particular, adaptogens help increase a person’s attention in situations of stress and help reduce conditions brought about by stress like post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Ashwagandha also helps reduce blood sugar levels and has been found to have anticancer effects.

Although ashwagandha has a relatively good tolerability profile, when taken in excess, it can cause nausea, diarrhea, and drowsiness, according to Khara Jefferson, DNP, APRN. Some have reported skin irritation. These side effects, however, are not serious and can disappear after a short period.

Ashwagandha comes in many forms for human consumption. It can come in raw powder form for use in food or drinks, as capsules, or as liquid extracts. The top five supplement producers are Wise Woman Herbals, Herb Pharm, Organic India, Rebel Herbs, Klaire Labs, Banyan Botanicals, and Ayush Herbs. The supplements are typically used to help relieve stress, increase energy levels, and for immune support. According to Narendrha Singh et al, the herb possesses antioxidant properties that can help protect the body against free radical-induced cellular damage. It can also enhance cell-mediated immunity, or the body’s immune response to antigens through the release of T-lymphocytes and phagocytes, among others.

Ashwagandha has been used for thousands of years in alternative medicine systems such as Ayurveda, which originated from India. In Ayurvedic medicine, it is regarded as a Rasayana or a tonic that ensures overall physical and mental health. In this alternative medicine system, ashwagandha is considered the most important Rasayana that can be used to treat neuronal disorders, skin diseases, and rheumatism, among others.

What Are The Benefits Of Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha’s benefits have been documented both through anecdotal evidence and scientific studies. Here are some of those:

1. Asian Herbal Medicine

Ashwagandha has long been used as a tonic in Asian herbal medicine. In Ayurvedic medicine, which dates back to 6,000 B.C., the tonics are given to both children and the elderly to increase energy levels and promote overall wellbeing and longevity.

All the parts of the ashwagandha plant are used in Ayurveda for their health benefits. According to Narendra Singh et al, the seeds, mixed with rock salt and astringent, are employed to treat eye conditions. Combined with other herbs such as haritaki and haridra to produce Ashwagandharishta, ashwagandha roots are also used to treat syncope, hysteria, and are even believed to increase a male’s sperm count. Believed to enhance brain function, the roots and leaves can also be crushed to create churna, root or leaf powder, that is mixed with honey, ghee or water for consumption. The leaves can also be used to treat patients with fever. Even the flowers are used as an aphrodisiac.

According to Michael Forman et al, ashwagandha is also used in traditional Chinese medicine, although to a lesser extent. In this alternative medicine system, ashwagandha is known as shiu qie. It is classified as a qi tonic, or one that helps enhance the body’s immune system responses, and helps restore balance to qi, or the body’s vital energy that protects the body from diseases. In traditional Chinese medicine, the herb is also used for its calming effects.

Netmeds, a pharmacy based in India, notes some of the characteristics of ashwagandha that make it yield these health benefits. The herb possesses Laghu (light) and Snigdha (oily) gunas. The gunas have been equated with mental and psychological energies. In traditional Chinese medicine, meanwhile, according to Joe Hing Kwok Chu of the Complementary and Healing University in China, the leaves are believed to contain hyperforin, which is believed responsible for the herb’s health effects.

The recommended dosage for ashwagandha in Ayurvedic medicine depends on the condition or disease to be treated and the form in which the herb is consumed. If consumed as churna or tea to enhance libido or treat fertility issues, the recommended dosage is 3 g taken two to three times a day. If taken as a tonic or as arishtam to enhance immunity and reproductive and bone health, and treat anxiety and insomnia, the recommended dosage is four teaspoons two times a day mixed with water. Consumed as lehyam, or a jam-like substance that also contains ghee, honey, and other herbs such as sariva and draksha, to enhance stamina or treat undernourishment, the recommended dosage is 6 to 12 g for adults, taken two times a day with milk. This ashwagandha preparation can also be used to treat pyospermia, a condition in which the male sperm contains a high concentration of white blood cells which has been correlated with less fertility.

2. Reduces Blood Sugar Levels

Scientific studies have shown that ashwagandha can help blood glucose levels. A study by Ziahra Kiasalari et al found that diabetic rats given the herb in powdered root form and mixed with food in pellets at a 6.25% ratio for four weeks reduced the effects of diabetes on progesterone. The proper functioning of the hormones progesterone and estrogen is critical to the cellular response to insulin, which helps control blood sugar levels.

Another study by Tarique Anwer et al found that blood glucose levels in two sets of rats with type 2 diabetes decreased “significantly” after treatment with ashwagandha dissolved in water at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively, for five weeks. The researchers found the reduction was dose-dependent.

In humans, a study by Smita Sontakke et al on the effects of ashwagandha on patients with schizophrenia concluded that the hypoglycemic effects of the herb were “significant” and deserved further study. The researchers made the conclusion after they found that the patients’ blood glucose levels decreased after consumption of one capsule containing 400 mg of the powdered herb three times daily for one month.

According to Anwer et al, ashwagandha helps in the normalization of hyperglycemia in diabetic rats by improving insulin sensitivity. Researchers Zahra Samadi Noshahr et al said this was a result of the herb’s antioxidant components. Asit Kumar Sinha, in his paper on the chemical analysis of ashwagandha, reported that the herb’s fruits, roots, stem, and leaves have 16.1 mg/g,  2.8 mg/g, 4.7 mg/g, and 18.9 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent total phenolic content, respectively. As such, each of those parts exhibits 45.7%, 45.1%, 33.1%, and 37.9% antioxidant activity.

Although the Smita Sontakke et al study found that a dosage of 400 mg of ashwagandha taken three times daily for one month reduces blood glucose levels, this finding applied to patients with schizophrenia. A person with no such illness who wishes to reduce blood glucose levels with the herb should therefore consult a medical professional prior to treatment.

3. Has Anticancer Properties

Ashwagandha has been proven to have anti-cancer properties. A study by Pratima Sinha et al found that ashwagandha, through its Withaferin A content, reduced the production of myeloid-derived suppressor cells that play a role in the progression of tumors. When administered at a 1, 2, 4, 8, mg/kg of body weight thrice a week every other day in mice with cancer, the herb also decreased the tumor weight in the animals. The treatment period started when the tumors were felt in the animals and lasted until their deaths. The researchers found similar results in an in vitro experiment.

Another study by Haruyo Ichikawa et al found based on laboratory assays that the withanolides isolated from ashwagandha leaves inhibit the activation of Nuclear Factor-KB, which plays a critical role in cancer progression.

Because of the limited studies on the specific anticancer effects of the herb on humans, it is difficult to give a recommended dosage for treatment of cancer. Consultation with a healthcare professional is recommended.

4. Reduces Cortisol Levels

Ashwagandha has been found to reduce cortisol levels, which, in excess, can lead to diseases such as Cushing’s syndrome. Cushing’s syndrome is an overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands and displays symptoms such as excess hair growth and easy skin bruising, among others, in patients. The syndrome can in turn lead to other diseases and conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

A study by Jaysing Salve et al found that serum cortisol levels in trial participants given 250 mg/day and 600 mg/day of aqueous ashwagandha root extract for eight weeks were reduced significantly compared to the cortisol levels of the placebo group. Another study by K. Chandrasekhar et al yielded similar results. The participants had been asked to take one capsule of ashwagandha root extract two times a day for 60 days. Each capsule used in this study contained 300 mg of ashwagandha root extract.

Neither study specified which particular component of ashwagandha allowed for a decrease in cortisol levels in their participants. However, flavonoids are known for their ability to reduce cortisol levels. According to Nadia Alam et al, ashwagandha contains a high concentration of flavonoids in its roots, fruits, and leaves, ranging from 15.49+-1.02 and 31.58+-5.07 mg/g.

Based on these studies, the recommended dosage for a reduction of cortisol levels is from 250 mg/day for eight weeks to 600 mg/day for eight weeks. Consultation with a medical professional is advised.

5. Helps Reduce Stress And Anxiety

Ashwagandha has been found to reduce stress and anxiety. Researchers Jaysing Salve et al concluded that ashwagandha root extract, in particular, decreased anxiety and stress levels. They came to this conclusion after their study found a significant decrease in the Perceived Stress Scale scores of participants who had received 250 mg/day and 600 mg/day of ashwagandha after eight weeks of treatment. According to the researchers, a significant improvement in the sleep quality of the same participants was also found based on a seven-point sleep scale compared to the placebo group.

The study by J. Chandrasekhar et al also concluded that “high concentration and full-spectrum ashwagandha root extract” enhances resistance to stress in a safe manner. They came to this conclusion after patients who took ashwagandha root in capsule form two times a day for 60 days scored high in stress-assessment questionnaires after the treatment period compared to the placebo group, and experienced no adverse effects. Each capsule contained 300 mg of the herb.

These studies did not specify the specific component of ashwagandha that helps reduce stress and anxiety but Adrian Lopresti et al noted this may have to do with the herb’s mitigating effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which regulates stress responses. Flavonoids, a primary ashwagandha component, have been found to attenuate HPA axis function.

Based on these studies, the recommended dosage for one who wishes to avail of the stress-reducing effects of ashwagandha is from 250 mg/day for eight weeks to 600 mg/day for eight weeks. Consultation with a medical professional is still advised.

6. Reduces Symptoms Of Depression

Studies have shown that ashwagandha reduces symptoms of depression. K. Chandrasekhar found that the depression-related symptoms such as social dysfunction and anxiety and insomnia exhibited by patients with chronic stress in their study were significantly reduced based on a Depression Anxiety Scale questionnaire and a General Health Questionnaire after treatment of ashwagandha compared to the symptoms of a placebo group. The patients had consumed two capsules of 300 mg of high-concentration root extract per capsule for the treatment period that lasted for 60 days.

Similar effects were found in rats that had been administered 100 mg/kg of the herb for eight weeks, in a study by A.K. Tripathi et al. The researchers noted that the animals’ emotional stability and behavior in the open field, in particular, improved. Although the researchers did not specify which component of the herb enabled such results, they noted that the mechanism by which the herb reduces depression symptoms is similar to the mechanism by which antidepressant drugs operate. According to JF Deakin et al, antidepressant drugs lower the levels of 5HT2 receptors, which have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders.

Based on the K. Chandrasekhar et al study, the recommended dosage for patients who wish to treat depression symptoms with ashwagandha is 600 mg/day for 60 days. Consultation with a medical professional, however, is still advised.

 

Ashwagandha Benefits Content Image 1

 

7. Can Boost Testosterone

Scientific studies have shown that ashwagandha can boost levels of testosterone, which plays a critical role in fertility. For instance, a study by Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad et al found that testosterone levels of infertile men who had been given 5 g/day of ashwagandha root powder mixed with milk for three months significantly improved compared to pre-treatment levels, with a 121% increase in asthenozoospermic males, a 140% increase in oligozoospermic males, and a 114% increase in normozoospermic males.

Another study by Abbas Ali Mahdi et al yielded similar results in three groups of males who were all normozoospermic and were smokers–stressed, smokers, neither of the two. The groups that had been given 5g/day of ashwagandha root powder for three months saw a 10 to 22% increase in testosterone levels, with the highest increase attributed to the stressed group.

Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad et al noted that the mechanism by which ashwagandha helps infertility–including by boosting testosterone levels—is unknown but its positive effects may have to do with its complex compound content. These compounds include choline, alkaloids, flavonoids, withanolides, sitoindosides VII–X, reducing sugars, withanolides I–VII, and beta-sitosterol.

A 5g/day dosage for three months is advised for those who wish to boost testosterone levels with the herb, based on these two studies. Consultation with a medical professional, however, is still advised.

8. Increases Fertility In Men

Scientific studies have found that ashwagandha may increase fertility in men. Apart from the fact that it has been found to increase testosterone which is critical to fertility, the herb has also been found to improve seminal parameters such as motility, concentration, volume, sperm count, among others.

The study by Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad et al, for instance, also found that sperm concentration, motility, and sperm count all significantly improved in the three groups of infertile males–asthenozoospermic, oligozoospermic, and normozoospermic–given 5 g/day of ashwagandha root powder mixed with milk for three months compared to pretreatment status. The semen volume in the normozoospermic and oligozoospermic also significantly increased. Although the same also increased in the asthenozoospermic patients, this was not significant.

Another study by Ashish Gupta et al found that the herb, given at a dose of 5g/day for three months, also improved the sperm quality of infertile patients and alanine, lactate,  histidine, citrate, GPC, and phenylalanine levels in the semen.

Researchers Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad et al noted that it may be ashwagandha’s complex compound content—choline, alkaloids, flavonoids, withanolides, sitoindosides VII–X, reducing sugars, withanolides I–VII, and beta-sitosterol, among others–that enables it to improve semen properties.

Another study by Kamla Kant Shukla et al noted that the herb improves semen quality, in particular, by reducing oxidative stress, combating apoptosis, and enhancing the concentration of critical metals such as Fe(2+). Cu(2+),  Zn(2+) and Au(2+) in the semen.

The recommended dosage for those who wish to manage infertility is 5g/day for three months, based on studies. Consultation with a healthcare professional, however, is still advised.

9. Increases Muscle Mass And Strength

Ashwagandha has been found to increase muscle mass and strength. A study by Sachin Wankhede et al concluded that the herb may be used as a supplementation in a training resistance program. This was after the researchers found that subjects with prior little resistance training treated with 300 mg of ashwagandha root extract two times per day for eight weeks yielded greater increases in muscle strength in the bench-press and leg-extension exercises compared to the placebo group after the treatment period.

Another study by Ashwinikumar A. Raut et al found that the muscle strength as demonstrated through the handgrip, quadriceps, and back extensor forces of healthy volunteers aged 18 to 30 increased after consumption of ashwagandha aqueous extract capsules in two doses per day. Each dose was increased every 10 days for a treatment period of 30 days. For the first ten days of the treatment period, the dose was 750 mg/day, after 10 days it was 1000 mg/day, and after another 10 days, the dosage was 1250 mg/day. The lean bodyweight of the participants was also found to have been reduced, while body fat also decreased.

According to the Sachin Wankhede et al study, ashwagandha’s positive effects on muscle mass and strength may have to do with its adaptogenic properties. The researchers noted that the increase in muscle strength and mass may be the result of the herb’s regulation of the body’s response to stress, the strain from exercise. The researchers, however, did not specify a component of the herb that made this possible.

Based on studies, the recommended dosage for those who wish to increase muscle mass and strength with ashwagandha is from 300 mg two times per day to 1250 mg per day for 10 days to eight weeks. Consultation, however, with a medical professional is still advised.

10. Reduces Inflammation

Ashwagandha has been found to reduce inflammation. Abudubari Sikandan et al concluded that ashwagandha may protect the skin against inflammation after it found, in vitro, that the hot water extract from ashwagandha root suppressed the expression of cytokines associated with inflammation such as TNF‑α and IL-8 in cultured human keratinocytes. At the same time, it enhanced the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Another study by Mahaboobkhan Rasool et al also affirmed the herb’s anti-inflammatory activity when it found that the paw diameter of rats with arthritis was reduced and the activity of lysosomal enzymes associated with inflammation was inhibited following the animals’ treatment of 1000 mg/g of the herb for eight days.

According to Sikandan et al, in their experiment, it was the herb’s triethylene glycol content that induced these anti-inflammatory activities. Because many of the studies on the direct effects of ashwagandha on inflammation were in vitro or used animal models, it is difficult to give a recommended herb dosage to those who wish to use the herb to reduce inflammation. Consultation with a healthcare professional is advised.

11. Lowers Cholesterol And Triglycerides

Ashwagandha has been found to lower cholesterol and triglycerides, which, in excess, may increase one’s risk of heart disease and stroke. In the study by Ashwinikumar A. Raut et al, for instance, the healthy volunteers yielded significantly lower cholesterol levels after 30 days of treatment of the herb at increasing dosages after every 10 days–from 750 mg/day to 1000 mg/day to 1250 mg/day. The researchers also found a decreasing trend in triglycerides with each follow-up visit after 10 days, 20 days, and 30 days of treatment.

A study by Nishant Visavadiya et al noted that this could be attributed to the phytosterol and fiber content of the herb. The researchers noted that phytosterol may be responsible for ensuring bile acid synthesis by mobilizing LDL-cholesterol levels. This, in turn, results in the elimination of excess cholesterol. The fiber content of the herb, on the other hand, delays the body’s absorption of cholesterol and carbohydrates leading to a reduced lipogenesis, or the synthesis of triglycerides and fatty acids from glucose and others.

Based on scientific studies, the recommended dosage, therefore, is from 750mg/day to 1250mg/day for 30 days. However, consultation with a medical professional is still advised.

12. Improves Brain Function, Including Memory

Ashwagandha has been found to improve cognitive function, including memory. A study by Dnyanraj Choudhary et al found that the general and immediate memory of subjects given 300 mg of ashwagandha root extract two times daily for eight weeks improved significantly, based on their scores in Wechsler Memory Scale III subtests. The subjects also improved their information-processing speed, executive function, and attention, the researchers said.

The researchers did not attribute these properties to any specific component of ashwagandha. They noted instead the herb’s stress-protective effects, adding that the normal cognitive function can be affected by stress and anxiety in the first place.

Based on this study, the recommended dosage for those who wish to improve brain function using ashwagandha is 300 mg taken twice daily for eight weeks. Consultation with a medical professional is still advised to ensure no side effects.

13. Improves Sexual Function In Women

Ashwagandha has been found to enhance sexual function in women. A study by Swati Dongre et al found that women who consumed 300 mg two times daily of high-concentration ashwagandha root extract for eight weeks scored higher in the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire in the arousal, orgasm, satisfaction, and lubrication sections from the baseline. They also scored higher in the Female Sexual Distress Scale, a survey with 12 items that measures distress in women in relation to sex, and the number of successful sexual encounters. According to the researchers, the herb’s positive effects on sexual function in women may have to do with its stress-relieving properties and its capacity to increase testosterone levels. Stress has been associated with female sexual disorder while reduced testosterone levels lead to androgen deficiency syndrome, which results in loss of libido.

The studies that looked into the positive benefits of ashwagandha on stress did not specify which specific component of the herb was responsible for this. Adrian Lopresti et al have noted, however, that the positive effects may have to do with the herb’s mitigating effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which regulates stress responses. Ashwagandha contains flavonoids, which have been found to attenuate HPA axis function.

Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad et al have also noted that the positive effects of ashwagandha on infertility–including by boosting testosterone levels—may have to do with its complex compound content that includes choline, alkaloids, flavonoids, withanolides, sitoindosides VII–X, reducing sugars, withanolides I–VII, and beta-sitosterol.

Based on the study by Swati Dongre et al, the recommended dosage for one who wishes to enhance sexual function is 300 mg taken twice daily for eight weeks. Consultation with a medical professional, however, is still advised.

14. Supports Heart Health

Ashwagandha has been found to support heart health. A study by Jaspal Singh Sandhu et al found that the VO2 max levels, or the maximum amount of oxygen one can take in when exerting physical effort, increased significantly from the baseline in patients who had consumed 500 mg/kg of ashwagandha for eight weeks. Higher VO2 levels may indicate a healthy heart since the higher values may be a reflection of how well the heart, together with the lungs, distributed oxygen inside the body to the muscles during that physical exercise.

Another study by Bakhtiar Choudary et al yielded similar results. The researchers found that the VO2 max levels of athletic adults increased compared to a placebo group after treatment with high concentration full-spectrum root extract of ashwagandha. The subjects had taken the herb at a dose of 600 mg per day–two 300-mg capsules per day— for 12 weeks. The researchers said the higher VO2 max levels were observed just eight weeks into the treatment and then after the full 12 weeks of treatment.

The study did not cite a mechanism by which ashwagandha can yield these positive effects on VO2 max levels, nor did it cite the ashwagandha component that could be behind the same. A study by Jorge Perez Gomez et al hypothesized it may be any of the alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, or the withanolides in the herb, adding that further studies are therefore needed to pinpoint the specific component behind the effects.

What Are The Risks and Side-Effects Of Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha has relatively high patient acceptability. If taken in excess, however, it may yield the following side effects:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Drowsiness
  • Skin irritation

According to Khara Jefferson, DNP, APRN, however, these side effects are minor and don’t last long. Researchers Virendra N. Seghal et noted that the itching and discoloration in the penis observed in a 28-year-old man after treatment of ashwagandha at 5g/day for ten days disappeared after discontinued use of the herb and topical use of a clobetasol propionate cream.

To avoid such side effects, consultation with a medical professional is advised prior to treatment.

Safe For Most People And Widely Available

Ashwagandha has a high tolerability profile, which makes it ideal for consumption for people looking to treat specific medical conditions and diseases such as depression, infertility, and cancer. According to Khara Jefferson, DNP, APRN, when taken in excess, it can cause nausea, diarrhea, and drowsiness. Some have reported skin irritation. These side effects, however, according to Jefferson, are not serious. They disappear after a short period. This tolerability profile can also be seen in many of the scientific studies conducted on the health benefits of the herb, where researchers report minor to no side effects in subjects. A study by Mahababkhoon Rasool et al, for instance, noted that the herb exhibited potent antipyretic and analgesic effects in two sets of rats with gouty arthritis but did not yield gastric damage on the animals. One group had been given ashwagandha root powder at a dose of 500 mg/kg and the other group at a dose of 1000 mg/kg once, 30 minutes before the muscle contractions were induced in the animals via acetic acid injection, and 18 hours after the high temperatures were induced with injection of baker’s yeast. The study by Sachin Wankhede et al that affirmed the herb’s positive effects on muscle strength and recovery also noted that there were no reported side effects in the subjects of the study who had been administered 300 mg of ashwagandha root extract two times per day for eight weeks.

Ashwagandha is also widely available, which means consumers won’t have a hard time searching for the herb and its supplement forms anywhere in the world. Although ashwagandha is endemic to Asia and Africa, it can grow in other areas where there are temperate climates. In the United States, in particular, the herb also grows abundantly in Oregon. The herb is sold as supplements in online retailers such as premierformulas.com and brick-and-mortar stores of major retailers such as Walmart and Costco.

How Does Ashwagandha Work Within The Human Body?

Ashwagandha has a complex composition. It contains withanone, withaferin A, withanolides, sitoindosides, phenolics, linoleic acid, oleic acid, among others. Because of the herb’s complex composition, many of the studies that show specific positive effects of the herb on humans do not attribute these effects to particular herb components. They merely attribute the same to ashwagandha as a whole.

While some studies hypothesize what these components and mechanisms are, it is still impossible to cite a single mechanism and ingredient that are behind ashwagandha’s positive effects on humans. Each component and mechanism, if there are any cited in the scientific study, will vary depending on the health benefit in question. For instance, A.K. Tripathi et al. noted that the mechanism by which ashwagandha reduces depression symptoms is similar to the mechanism by which antidepressant drugs operate. According to JF Deakin et al, antidepressant drugs lower the levels of 5HT2 receptors associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. A.K. Tripathi et al did not specify which component of the herb alleviated the depression symptoms in their animal subjects. Abudubari Sikandan et al, for their part, noted that ashwagandha may protect the skin against inflammation by suppressing the expression of cytokines associated with inflammation such as TNF‑α and IL-8, and at the same time enhancing the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The researchers noted that ashwagandha does this through its triethylene glycol content.

How Do You Determine The Correct Ashwagandha Dosage?

The recommended ashwagandha dosage depends on the condition or disease one wishes to treat with the herb. To reduce cortisol levels, for instance, based on studies, the recommended dosage is from 250 mg/day to 600 mg/day for eight weeks. Based on the K. Chandrasekhar et al study, the recommended dosage for patients who wish to treat depression symptoms, on the other hand, is 600 mg/day for 60 days. For those who wish to boost testosterone levels, a 5g/day dosage for three months is advised. Meanwhile, the recommended dosage for those who wish to manage infertility is 5g/day for three months, according to scientific studies. Consultation with a medical professional is advised.

What Are The Most Common Questions For Ashwagandha Usage?

A check online shows that the questions on ashwagandha typically revolve around its use and what it does to the body. Here are some of those common questions:

  • What does ashwagandha do to the body?
  • What does ashwagandha do to the brain?
  • Does ashwagandha have any side effects?
  • Who should not take ashwagandha?

Questions on the herb’s composition are not as common.

What Are The Facts About Ashwagandha?

There are many interesting facts about this plant. Ashwagandha is a shrub and can grow up to 4 feet high. Its leaves are elliptical and yellow-green. Its seeds, meanwhile, have a reddish color when they are ready to be harvested.

Ashwagandha thrives in high-quality soil–light reddish soil or sandy loam—in areas where there is no threat of frost. The plant doesn’t need excessive watering and can grow on its own in areas where rainfall is within the range of 500 to 750 mm.

What Is The Nutritional Profile Of Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha has a high nutritional value. According to Sangita Kumari et al, who looked into the nutritional composition of the herb, 100 g of dehydrated ashwagandha root powder contains 3.9 g of protein, 0.3 g of fat, 32.3 g of crude fiber, 49.9 g of carbohydrates, 0.0033 g of iron, 0.023 g of calcium, and 0.0058 g of Vitamin C. The root powder also contains 75.7 micrograms or 7.57e-5 g of total carotene.

How Is Ashwagandha Processed?

All ashwagandha parts are believed to yield health benefits. Each part is harvested differently but the process for each part is straightforward.

For instance, the seeds, according to GKVKS, a gardening website, are plucked once they turn a bit red. The seeds are then dried for two days under the sun. Once dry, they are crushed to produce a powder. According to Narendra Singh et al, this can be mixed with rock salt and astringent for treatment of eye conditions.

Meanwhile, the plucking of leaves is done once they are dry. They are crushed in a mortar and pestle to create churna, or powdered leaves. The powder is then mixed with honey, ghee or water for consumption. The roots can also be combined with other herbs such as haritaki and haridra to produce ashwagandharishta, which is used to treat syncope, hysteria, among others.

The harvesting of roots is not as different as the harvesting of its other parts. According to Chris Kilham of the American Botanical Society, the roots are ready to be harvested once they resemble white carrots. A pick can be used to dig around the area to make the removal of the roots easier. Once detached from the soil, the vegetative top is chopped off. The roots are then washed and then sun-dried. These roots can be transformed into powder (churna) with a mortar and pestle for mixing with water, honey and ghee prior to consumption, may be retained and boiled straight into the water for 20 to 45 minutes for consumption as tea.

Supplement manufacturers and other stakeholders have come up with novel ways to extract from the different parts of ashwagandha while ensuring the components that give it its health properties are retained in the resulting product at optimal levels. Jayesh Panalal Choksi et al, for instance, have described a process that involves the combined cold and hot extraction of ashwagandha roots, and then their drying to ensure the withanosides are retained after processing. Some manufacturers also described the extraction of ashwagandha oil from the root via cold pressing, or the use of a hydraulic press for crushing that forces the natural oils out.

 

Ashwagandha Benefits Content Image 2

 

 

What Are The Supplement Forms Of Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha can come in different forms. Those who wish to avail of the herb’s benefits may consume it in the following forms:

1. Ashwagandha Liquid Extract

Ashwagandha liquid extract is typically derived via the cold-pressing method. Supplement manufacturers such as NOW and Nature’s Answer recommend mixing one to two drops of ashwagandha liquid extract in warm water for consumption one to three times a day. Herb Pharm says its liquid extract can also be mixed with juice, with one drop in 2 oz of juice sufficing. This drink can be taken two to three times a day between meals.

Why Is Ashwagandha Liquid Extract Useful?

Ashwagandha liquid extract is useful because, when consumed orally, it allows for faster absorption and optimized use. Medicare Europe says this is because, in general, the body doesn’t need to break liquid extracts down for digestion. Only one to four minutes are needed for the liquid extract to be fully assimilated into the body. When it does get assimilated, around 98% of the liquid extract is used by the body, according to Medicare Europe. You can also custom specify your dosage with liquid, whereas pills are at set dosages already.

However, there are also disadvantages to the use of ashwagandha liquid extract. Because it’s in liquid form, a user has a higher risk of overdosing as compared to when the user consumes tablets or pills. Tablets and pills have fixed doses. The dose consumed by the patient ultimately depends on what they or the medical professional administered.

2. Ashwagandha Powder

Ashwagandha can be consumed in its raw powder form. The powder can be derived from the crushing of leaves or roots. This powder can be consumed in several ways.

Some supplement manufacturers like Banyan Botanicals, for instance, recommend mixing the ¼ to ½ teaspoon of the raw powder with warm water for consumption. Rebel Herbs says its product can be mixed with juice and smoothie as well. From Great Origins, for its part, says its ashwagandha powder goes well with food such as yogurt.

Other manufacturers such as Zandu sell the raw powder in infusion bags, which are dipped in boiling water to create tea. The supplement manufacturer recommends only one tea bag for 100 ml of boiling water. After infusion for one to three minutes, honey may be added.

3. Ashwagandha Pills (Capsules and Tablets)

The powder or liquid extract from ashwagandha leaves and roots may also be sold in the form of capsules. Many of the scientific studies that have proven ashwagandha’s health benefits come in capsule form, in particular with root powder, not leaves powder, enclosed. Ashwagandha capsules are also better absorbed by the body than tablets, which means consumers may feel the herb’s effects quickly. Consumers have more accuracy when it comes to dosage with capsules than with liquid extracts as well since each capsule sold by supplement manufacturers already comes with a specific dose. One Karuna capsule, for instance, contains a fixed dose of 1200 mg of ashwagandha root powder. Meanwhile, one Organic India ashwagandha vegcap contains 800 mg of organic ashwagandha root.

What Is The Etymology Of Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha is a combination of two Sanskrit words, “ashva,” which means horse, and “gandha,” which means “smell.” The term “ashwagandha” therefore literally translates to “smell of the horse.” The label is an apparent reference to the root’s odor.

The scientific name of ashwagandha is Withania somnifera. It belongs to the family Solanaceae, or the nightshade family. The term Withania that refers to the genus is believed to have come from the surname of geologist Henry Witham, a botany writer in the early 19th century. In Latin, “somnifera” means “sleep-inducing.”

What Place Does Ashwagandha Have In Society And Culture?

Ashwagandha plays an important role in society and culture. Even before it was transformed into supplement forms, the herb was already being used by practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine, believed to be one of the world’s oldest medicine systems dating back to 6,000 B.C. The herb, classified as a Rasayana or a tonic, was primarily used to promote overall well being, according to Narendra Singh et al. The seeds were mixed with rock salt and astringent for treatment of eye conditions while the roots were combined with other herbs such as haridra and haritaki to produce Ashwagandharishta. The resulting concoction was then used to treat hysteria and syncope. The roots and leaves were also crushed to create churna, root or leaf powder which was then mixed with honey, ghee or water and consumed in the belief that it could enhance brain function. The leaves were also used to treat fever.

The herb even has a place in traditional Chinese medicine, which is at least 23 centuries old.

According to Michael Forman et al, ashwagandha was known as shiu qie. It was also classified as a qi tonic that gives the body protection from diseases by restoring balance to qi. In traditional Chinese medicine, qi refers to the body’s vital energy.

At present, the use of ashwagandha is no longer confined to these alternative medical systems. In fact, an Herb Market Report published by the American Botanical Council noted that in 2019, the herb–sold in the form of supplements— ranked fifth among herbs with the most sales in the United States retail sector, with $13.7 million. In his article published on Nutritional Outlook, Sebastian Krawiec said ashwagandha is now even more increasingly used for sleep support and management of stress with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Even some consumer packaged goods (CPG) brands have seen the herb’s potential and have launched products that feature ashwagandha. The herb, for instance, has been included in the product Vicks ZzzQuil Pure Zzzs De-Stress and Sleep Gummies. Experts have predicted the herb will also soon be known in the mainstream market for its benefits in other areas such as sports nutrition, pet care, immunity, and heart health as consumers become more aware of the herb’s health benefits.

What Are Some Food Recipes That Contain Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha can also be used as a food ingredient. When consumed this way, one may also avail of the herb’s health benefits. Below are some food recipes that contain the herb:

  • Hazelnut latte
  • Golden milk cocoa
  • Raw adaptogen fudge
  • Ashwagandha nut butter balls
  • Ashwagandha almond butter

Ashwagandha can be added to any type of food or drink for consumption. Consultation with a medical professional, however, is still recommended prior to consumption.

What Are The Ashwagandha Parts?

All the parts of ashwagandha are believed to yield health benefits. Below are the parts of the herb:

  • Seeds: These are green but turn reddish once they are ready for plucking.
  • Leaves: These are yellowish-green and are oval-shaped.
  • Roots: They are long and sturdy and have a carrot-like appearance.
  • Flowers: They are yellow and are hermaphrodites.

Of all the parts, the seeds and the roots are the most used by supplement manufacturers in their nutraceuticals.

What Is The History Of Ashwagandha?

According to Dr. Gopakumar S, a professor at the Government Ayurveda College in Kerala, India, the origins of ashwagandha are unclear. Ayurvedic practitioners note that the herb was first cited as a treatment option for respiratory, skin, and other conditions in the Charaka Samhita, a critical medical text used in Ayurvedic medicine. The text was written by Charaka, an Ayurvedic practitioner, who was believed to have lived between 200 B.C. and 200 A.D.

The Sharnhadgara Samitha, a 14th-century text, also has excerpts that explain the different ways the herb was used for consumption. These were in the form of kashaya which was a water-based concoction, ghee or butter, churna or powder, and as lehya, a syrup.

What Are The Other Plants That Are Called Ashwagandha From Time To Time?

Ashwagandha is sometimes confused with other plants because of their similarities. Below is a list of some plants that have been wrongly called ashwagandha from time to time:

  • Bladder cherry or Physalis alkekengi: This plant is a species in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, the same family ashwagandha belongs to. This can perhaps explain why the two are sometimes wrongly used interchangeably.
  • American ginseng or Panax quinquefolius: Both American ginseng and ashwagandha have been proven to yield health benefits. This may explain why they are sometimes wrongly used interchangeably.
  • Korean ginseng or Panax Ginseng. Both Korean ginseng and ashwagandha yield health benefits, which may explain why they are sometimes wrongly used interchangeably.

In terms of physical appearance, however, it may be easy to tell these plants apart from ashwagandha. American ginseng’s flowers are greenish-white, Korean ginseng’s are red, and bladder cherry’s are orange.

What Are The Most Common Questions For Ashwagandha Usage?

A check online shows the typical questions asked revolving around ashwagandha usage. Here are the most common questions:

  • How is ashwagandha used in daily life?
  • What’s the best time of day to take ashwagandha?
  • How can I use ashwagandha at home?
  • How quickly does ashwagandha work?
  • How do you use ashwagandha for testosterone?

Are Ashwagandha Supplements Approved By The Authorities?

No. The Food and Drug Administration regulates herbal supplements like ashwagandha supplements as dietary supplements, not as drugs. That means that these supplements don’t need prior approval from the FDA to be sold on the market. Once they are on the market, the FDA, however, starts exercising its safety monitoring function by reviewing supplement labels and promotional materials as its resources allow and monitoring whether there are safety complaints about the product.

Is Ashwagandha A Hormone?

No. It is a plant that has been shown to lower the levels of cortisol, a hormone the adrenal glands produce in stressful situations. Once cortisol levels are reduced, the body’s stress response is reduced as well.

Can You Take Ashwagandha At Night?

Yes. Ashwagandha has a high tolerability profile, which means side effects are not as common. The herb has also been used in traditional Chinese medicine for its calming effects, which may help one attain a good night’s rest.

Can You Take Ashwagandha After a Meal?

Yes. Some supplement manufacturers recommend the consumption of ashwagandha between meals. Herb Pharm, for example, recommends one dropper of its liquid extract into 2 oz of water or juice for consumption between meals. The drink, it says, can be taken two to three times a day.

When in capsule form, however, supplement manufacturers typically recommend the consumption of ashwagandha during meals. Organic India, for instance, recommends consumption of two capsules containing organic ashwagandha root powder twice daily with food and water. It’s best to follow the supplement manufacturer’s recommendations on the time of the day the herb should be taken. Consultation with a healthcare professional is also advised.

Can You Take Ashwagandha Every Day?

Yes. Ashwagandha has a high tolerability profile, which means side effects are not as commonly reported. Even if they are reported, these are minor and typically go away after a short period. Many of the scientific studies that have proven the health benefits of the herb also involved subjects consuming ashwagandha on a daily basis for a specific treatment period.

Can A Child Take Ashwagandha?

Yes. A study by Rakesh Kumar Mishra found that two preparations of ashwagandha–granules and ghrita (ghee)—given to children aged 3 to 12 at varying doses, from 2.5 g to 8 g, depending on the age improved the brumhana effect on children, thereby leading to enhanced body plumpness. Brumhana is the therapy used to improve nutrition levels. However, the ghrita formulation yielded superior clinical effects, the researchers found. Consultation with a medical professional before a child consumes the herb is still advised.

Can Your Pet Consume Ashwagandha?

Yes. According to Dr. Dilip Sonune, a veterinarian, ashwagandha has calming, antifungal, and immune-boosting properties that can benefit pets. Some manufacturers sell ashwagandha products–shampoos, treats, and oils–for pets. Even capsules for pets are sold. Ayush Herbs, for instance, recommends consumption of one capsule containing 100 mg of ashwagandha once daily for animals under 13.6 kg, one capsule twice daily for those weighing from 30.6 kg to 27.2 kg, and two capsules three times twice daily for animals weighing from 27.2 kg to 40.82 kg.

Which Plant Produces Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is the name of the plant that produces ashwagandha supplements. All the plant’s parts are believed to yield health benefits. In Ayurvedic medicine, the seeds, mixed with rock salt and astringent, are used to treat eye conditions. The roots and leaves are crushed and the powder is used to enhance brain function, decrease cortisol levels, among others. Even the flowers are used as an aphrodisiac.

 

Ashwagandha Benefits Content Image 1

 

Of all the plant parts, however, it is the root that is commonly used by supplement manufacturers in their products.

What Are The Top Current Scientific Research Topics For Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha is of interest to researchers as well. Below are the top scientific topics on ashwagandha:

  • Overviews and meta-analysis of ashwagandha
  • Investigation into the stress-relieving and pharmacological actions of an ashwagandha extract
  • Efficacy and safety of ashwagandha root extract in insomnia and anxiety
  • Effect of ashwagandha extract on sleep

Researchers focus on topics revolving around ashwagandha as a possible therapeutic remedy.

What Is The Health Effect Of Ashwagandha On Women?

Ashwagandha yields many benefits to women according to scientific studies. Below are some of the health effects of the herb on women who consume the herb:

  • It can improve sexual function
  • It can relieve menopause symptoms
  • It increases muscle mass and strength
  • It can reduce stress levels
  • It can enhance cognitive function
  • It can lower blood sugar levels
  • It can improve heart health

Consultation with a doctor is advised prior to consumption of ashwagandha to determine the proper dosage to avail of each benefit.

What Is The Health Effect Of Ashwagandha On Men?

Ashwagandha can also yield benefits to men, based on scientific studies. Below are some of the health effects of the herb on men:

  • It can improve sexual function.
  • It boosts testosterone levels.
  • It increases muscle mass and strength
  • It can reduce stress levels
  • It can enhance cognitive function
  • It can lower blood sugar levels
  • It can improve heart health

Consultation with a doctor is still advised prior to consumption of ashwagandha to determine the proper dosage to avail of each benefit.

How Does Ashwagandha Work For Stress?

Yes, ashwagandha works for stress. Adrian Lopresti et al noted that the herb may have a mitigating effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which regulates stress responses when it enters the body. The result is that cortisol levels, which are produced by the adrenal gland in stressful situations, are reduced and return to normal. The body’s stress response is therefore reduced.

Is Ashwagandha Better To Use Than Anti-Depressants?

No. Ashwagandha should not be used as a substitute for medication prescribed by a doctor. Research studies have found that the herb can treat depression symptoms, not depression itself. However, ashwagandha can be used to complement antidepressants. The herb has no known interactions with any drug, including antidepressants.

What Is The Difference Between Ashwagandha And Anti-Depressants?

Ashwagandha and antidepressants are different in many ways. Below are some of those differences:

  • Ashwagandha is a nutraceutical. A nutraceutical is a food or part of a food that has health benefits. Antidepressants are pharmaceuticals. They are compounds that were manufactured.
  • Ashwagandha can be used as ingredients in food. Antidepressants cannot.
  • Ashwagandha is widely available. Antidepressants can only be purchased with a doctor’s prescription.

Ashwagandha cannot be used as a substitute for medication prescribed by a doctor but it can be used to complement it.

 

Resources:

  1. Panossian, A., & Wikman, G. (2010). Effects of Adaptogens on the Central Nervous System and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress—Protective Activity. Pharmaceuticals, 3(1), 188-224. doi: 10.3390/ph3010188
  2. The most common side effects of supplementing with ashwagandha — and who should avoid this medicinal herb. (2022). Retrieved 31 January 2022, from https://www.insider.com/ashwagandha-side-effects
  3. Singh, N., Bhalla, M., De Jager, P., & Gilca, M. (2011). An Overview on Ashwagandha: A Rasayana (Rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. African Journal Of Traditional, Complementary And Alternative Medicines, 8(5S). doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5s.9
  4. Singh, N., Bhalla, M., De Jager, P., & Gilca, M. (2011). An Overview on Ashwagandha: A Rasayana (Rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. African Journal Of Traditional, Complementary And Alternative Medicines, 8(5S). doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5s.9
  5. Dinesh, P., & Rasool, M. (2019). Herbal Formulations and Their Bioactive Components as Dietary Supplements for Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis. Bioactive Food As Dietary Interventions For Arthritis And Related Inflammatory Diseases, 385-399. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-813820-5.00022-2
  6. Merging Ayurvedic Ashwagandha with Traditional Chinese Medicine Part 1. Foundation in Ashwagandha: Physiological Effects, Clinical Efficacy, and Properties. (2022). Retrieved 1 February 2022, from https://www.gavinpublishers.com/article/view/merging-ayurvedic-ashwagandha-with-traditional-chinese-medicine-part-1-foundation-in-ashwagandha-physiological-effects-clinical-efficacy-and-properties
  7. Ashwagandha: Benefits, Uses, Dosage, Formulations, and Side Effects. (2022). Retrieved 1 February 2022, from https://www.netmeds.com/health-library/post/Ashwagandha-Benefits-Uses-Dosage-Formulations-and-Side-Effects
  8. shui qie, Complementary and Alternative Healing University. (2022). Retrieved 1 February 2022, from http://alternativehealing.org/shui_qie.htm(2022). Retrieved 1 February 2022, from https://journals.ssu.ac.ir/ijrmnew/article-1-160-en.pdf
  9. T, A., M, S., KK, P., & G, K. (2012). Protective effect of Withania somnifera against oxidative stress and pancreatic beta-cell damage in type 2 diabetic rats. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, 69(6). Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23285670/
  10. Sci-Hub | Effects of Withania somnifera in patients of schizophrenia: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled pilot trial study | 10.4103/0253-7613.115012. (2022). Retrieved 1 February 2022, from https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.4103/0253-7613.115012
  11. Zahra Samadi Noshahr, A. (2015). Protective effects of Withania somnifera root on inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Reports Of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 3(2), 62. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757043/
  12. (2022). Retrieved 1 February 2022, from https://www.jetir.org/papers/JETIR2010416.pdf
  13. Sinha, P., & Ostrand-Rosenberg, S. (2013). Myeloid-derived suppressor cell function is reduced by Withaferin A, a potent and abundant component of Withania somnifera root extract. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, 62(11), 1663-1673. doi: 10.1007/s00262-013-1470-2
  14. Sci-Hub | Withanolides potentiate apoptosis, inhibit invasion, and abolish osteoclastogenesis through suppression of nuclear factor- B (NF- B) activation and NF- B-regulated gene expression | 10.1158/1535-7163.mct-06-0096. (2022). Retrieved 1 February 2022, from https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.1158/1535-7163.mct-06-0096
  15. Salve, J., Pate, S., Debnath, K., & Langade, D. (2019). Adaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study. Cureus. doi: 10.7759/cureus.6466
  16. Chandrasekhar, K., Kapoor, J., & Anishetty, S. (2012). A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults. Indian Journal Of Psychological Medicine, 34(3), 255-262. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106022
  17. Alam, N., Hossain, M., Khalil, M., Moniruzzaman, M., Sulaiman, S., & Gan, S. (2011). High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. BMC Complementary And Alternative Medicine, 11(1). doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-65
  18. Lopresti, A., Smith, S., Malvi, H., & Kodgule, R. (2019). An investigation into the stress-relieving and pharmacological actions of an ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract. Medicine, 98(37), e17186. doi: 10.1097/md.0000000000017186
  19. AK, T., S, D., RH, S., & PK, D. (1998). Alterations in the sensitivity of 5(th) receptor subtypes following chronic asvagandha treatment in rats. Ancient Science Of Life, 17(3). Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22556838/
  20. Deakin, J. (1988). 5HT2 receptors, depression and anxiety. Pharmacology Biochemistry And Behavior, 29(4), 819-820. doi: 10.1016/0091-3057(88)90215-8
  21. Ahmad, M., Mahdi, A., Shukla, K., Islam, N., Rajender, S., & Madhukar, D. et al. (2010). Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males. Fertility And Sterility, 94(3), 989-996. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.04.046
  22. Mahdi, A., Shukla, K., Ahmad, M., Rajender, S., Shankhwar, S., Singh, V., & Dalela, D. (2011). Withania somniferaImproves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility. Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, 2011, 1-9. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep138
  23. Gupta, A., Mahdi, A., Shukla, K., Ahmad, M., Bansal, N., Sankhwar, P., & Sankhwar, S. (2013). Efficacy of Withania somnifera on seminal plasma metabolites of infertile males: A proton NMR study at 800MHz. Journal Of Ethnopharmacology, 149(1), 208-214. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.024
  24. Shukla, K., Mahdi, A., Mishra, V., Rajender, S., Sankhwar, S., Patel, D., & Das, M. (2011). Withania somnifera improves semen quality by combating oxidative stress and cell death and improving essential metal concentrations. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 22(5), 421-427. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2011.01.010
  25. Raut, A., Rege, N., Shirolkar, S., Pandey, S., Tadvi, F., & Solanki, P. et al. (2012). Exploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteers. Journal Of Ayurveda And Integrative Medicine, 3(3), 111. doi: 10.4103/0975-9476.100168
  26. Wankhede, S., Langade, D., Joshi, K., Sinha, S., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Of The International Society Of Sports Nutrition, 12(1). doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0104-9
  27. Sikandan, A., Shinomiya, T., & Nagahara, Y. (2018). Ashwagandha root extract exerts anti‑inflammatory effects in HaCaT cells by inhibiting the MAPK/NF‑κB pathways and by regulating cytokines. International Journal Of Molecular Medicine. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2018.3608
  28. Rasool, M., Latha, L., & Varalakshmi, P. (2000). Effect of <I>Withania somnifera</I> on Lysosomal Acid Hydrolases in Adjuvant-induced Arthritis in Rats. Pharmacy And Pharmacology Communications, 6(4), 187-190. doi: 10.1211/146080800128735863
  29. Raut, A., Rege, N., Shirolkar, S., Pandey, S., Tadvi, F., & Solanki, P. et al. (2012). Exploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteers. Journal Of Ayurveda And Integrative Medicine, 3(3), 111. doi: 10.4103/0975-9476.100168
  30. Sci-Hub | Hypocholesteremic and antioxidant effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) in hypercholesteremic rats | 10.1016/j.phymed.2006.03.005. (2022). Retrieved 2 February 2022, from https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.1016/j.phymed.2006.03.005
  31. Sci-Hub | Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha ( <i>Withania somnifera</i> (L.) <i>Dunal</i> ) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions | 10.1080/19390211.2017.1284970. (2022). Retrieved 2 February 2022, from https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.1080/19390211.2017.1284970
  32. Rasool, M., & Varalakshmi, P. (2006). Suppressive effect of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental gouty arthritis: An in vivo and in vitro study. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 164(3), 174-180. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2006.09.011
  33. Dongre, S., Langade, D., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Improving Sexual Function in Women: A Pilot Study. Biomed Research International, 2015, 1-9. doi: 10.1155/2015/284154
  34. Sandhu, J., Shah, B., Shenoy, S., Padhi, M., Chauhan, S., & Lavekar, G. (2010). Effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adults. International Journal Of Ayurveda Research, 1(3), 144. doi: 10.4103/0974-7788.72485
  35. Langade, D., Choudhary, B., & Shetty, A. (2015). Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults. AYU (An International Quarterly Journal Of Research In Ayurveda), 36(1), 63. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.169002
  36. Pérez-Gómez, J., Villafaina, S., Adsuar, J., Merellano-Navarro, E., & Collado-Mateo, D. (2020). Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on VO2max: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 12(4), 1119. doi: 10.3390/nu12041119
  37. VN, S., P, V., & SN, B. (2012). Fixed-drug eruption caused by ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): a widely used Ayurvedic drug. Skinmed, 10(1). Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22324179/
  38. Kumari, S., & Gupta, A. (2016). Nutritional composition of dehydrated ashwagandha, shatavari, and ginger root powder. International Journal Of Home Science, 2(3), 68-70. Retrieved from https://www.homesciencejournal.com/archives/?year=2016&vol=2&issue=3&part=B&ArticleId=165
  39. Update, H. (2022). How to Harvest and Collect Ashwagandha Seeds | Update – GKVKs – Gardening Tips and Store. Retrieved 3 February 2022, from https://www.gkvks.com/how-to-harvest-and-collect-ashwagandha-seeds-update/
  40. Ashwagandha Sustainability and Traceability – Sustainable Herbs Program. (2022). Retrieved 3 February 2022, from https://sustainableherbsprogram.org/explore/plants-in-commerce/ashwagandha/
  41. somnifera, W., somnifera, W., (2R)-2-[(1S)-1-[(1S, 1., & (2R)-2-[(1S)-1-[(1S, 1. (2011). WO2012160569A1 – “process for extraction of ashwagandha (withania somnifera) roots” – Google Patents. Retrieved 3 February 2022, from https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2012160569A1/en
  42. Liquids vs Pills | Medicare Europe. (2022). Retrieved 20 January 2022, from https://medicare-europe.co.uk/science-clinical-data/liquids-vs-pills.html
  43. Krawiec, S. (2020). CBD and elderberry see triple digit growth in mainstream channel, says HerbalGram. Retrieved 4 February 2022, from https://www.nutritionaloutlook.com/view/cbd-and-elderberry-see-triple-digit-growth-in-mainstream-channel-says-herbalgram
  44. Krawiec, S. (2021). Ashwagandha sales grew in 2020. Experts discuss how it will lead the mainstreaming of adaptogens in 2021. 2021 Ingredient trends to watch for food, drinks, and dietary supplements. Retrieved 4 February 2022, from https://www.nutritionaloutlook.com/view/ashwagandha-sales-grew-in-2020-experts-discuss-how-it-will-lead-the-mainstreaming-of-adaptogens-in-2021-2021-ingredient-trends-to-watch-for-food-drinks-and-dietary-supplements
  45. The History and Origins of Ashwagandha. (2021). Retrieved 4 February 2022, from https://medium.com/@mudwtr/the-history-and-origins-of-ashwagandha-256ed8b1a9b7
  46. Mishra, R., Trivedi, R., & Pandya, M. (2010). A clinical study of Ashwagandha ghrita and Ashwagandha granules for its Brumhana and Balya effect. AYU (An International Quarterly Journal Of Research In Ayurveda), 31(3), 355. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.77164
  47. Pet care: Why ashwagandha and neem are beneficial for dogs. (2021). Retrieved 4 February 2022, from https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/life-style/pet-care-ashwagandha-neem-beneficial-for-dogs-7669463/

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

Scroll to Top